Henschel Hs 130

Henschel Hs 130

Henschel Hs 130

The Henschel Hs 130 was a high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft developed from the experimental Hs 128. This was a twin-engined monoplane with a pressurized cabin, developed for high-altitude research, and that made its maiden flight in 1939. The Hs 128 attracted the attention of Theodor Rowehl, commander of AufklGr Ob.d.L, the Luftwaffe' High Command's reconnaissance unit, and he convinced the RLM to order Henschel to develop a military version of the aircraft. This venture would produce a number of prototypes for different versions of the aircraft, but none would enter production

Hs 130A

The Hs 130A was a twin-engined mid-wing monoplane, with a retractable undercarriage. The pressurised cabin was similar to that of the Hs 128, with very small cockpit windows. The Hs 130 had a wingspan of 72ft 6in, thirteen feet shorter than that of the Hs 128. Three prototypes were built, all of which made their maiden flights during 1940.

The V1 was powered by two 1,100hp Daimler Benz DB 601R engines, with three-blade propellers and GM-1 nitrous oxide power boost. When using the GM-1 boost it was able to reach 43,309ft. The V2 and V3 were similar to the V1, but with four bladed propellers.

The prototypes were followed by seven pre-production aircraft. The first five, A-01 to A-05, had their wingspan increased to 83ft 8in. Early in 1941 they underwent flight tests, which revealed some problems with performance and with the engines.

The next two aircraft, the A-06 and A-07 (or A-0/U6 and U7) had their wingspan increased to 95ft 1 ¾ in. They were powered by two 1,475hp Daimler Benz DB 605 engines with Hirth 9-2281 turbo-superchargers and GM-1 power boost. When carrying a crew of two these aircraft were able to reach 50,570ft, an altitude only beaten by one German piston engined aircraft, the Blohm und Voss Bv 155. Despite this impressive performance the Hs 130A wasn't considered suitable for military use, and no production orders were placed.

Hs 130B

The Hs 130B would have been a bomber version of the Hs 130A. It would have carried a 2,205lb bomb load,

Hs 130C

The Hs 130C was a greatly modified version of the aircraft designed for the 'Bomber B' competition (alongside the Junkers Ju 288, Focke-Wulf Fw 191 and Dornier Do 317). The Hs 130C used a new pressurised cabin that could carry a crew of four. It was armed with three remotely controlled barbettes, two armed with 13mm MG 131 machine-guns (above and below the cabin) and one in the tail armed with a 7.9mm MG 15. He Hs 130C could carry up to 4,410lb of bombs, and had the space to carry a single SC 1800 bomb or two LT F5b torpedoes.

Three prototypes were completed. The V1 and V2 were originally powered by two 1,600hp BMW 810A radial engines, while the V3 used the 1,750hp Daimler Benz DB 603A. The V2 was later given two 1,810hp BMW 801Tj radial engines, with turbo-superchargers.

The V3 was the only version built with the defensive armament, and would have been the precursor for 100 production C-1s that the German Air Ministry considered ordering in the summer of 1943, but this came to nothing when the entire Bomber B competition was scraped.

Hs 130D

The Hs 130D was to have used DB 605 engines and a two-stage supercharger system being developed by DVL and Argus. This was a particularly complex system, and was soon abandoned.

Hs 130E

The Hs 130E was the version that came closest to entering production. Instead of using a normal turbocharger or supercharger this version of the aircraft was to use the Höhen-Zentrale Anlage system, which involved installing an entire aircraft engine in the fuselage, which would power a turbo-blower that would provide high pressure air to the main engines on the wings. On the Hs 130E the internal engine was a 1,475hp Daimler Benz DB 605T, while the main engines were 1,750hp Daimler Benz DB 604Bs.

The extra engine forced Henschel to increase the length of the fuselage to restore the aircraft's centre of gravity. They also installed a longer wing, with a span of 108ft 3 ¼ in.

The V1 made its maiden flight in September 1942, without the HZ-Anlage system. The V2 followed in November, also without the HZ-Anlage, but once it was installed the aircraft were able to climb up to 49,200ft. The V2 was lost after an engine fire on its seventh test flight, and was replaced with the V3.

In the spring of 1943 the RLM (German Air Ministry) placed an order for 100 production E-1 aircraft. This was to carry defensive armament and 3,968lb of bombs under the wings. Seven pre-production aircraft were built, and the first made its maiden flight in May 1943, but the HZ-Anlage system was proving unreliable. The production order was reduced to 30 aircraft, and then soon after that scrapped completely.

Hs 130F

The Hs 130F would have been powered by four engines, either BMW 801TJ radials or Daimler-Benz DB 603 engines with Hirth turbo-superchargers. No aircraft were built.

A-06
Engine: Daimler Benz DB 605 engine with Hirth 9-2281 turbo-chargers plus GM1 power boost
Power: 1,860hp
Crew: 3
Wing span: 95ft 1 ¾ in
Length: 49ft 0 ½ in
Height: 16ft 1in
Fully loaded weight: 27,750lb
Max Speed: 292mph

E-0
Engine: Two Daimler-Benz DB 603B 12-cylinder engines
Supercharger: DB 605T mounted internally
Power: 1,750hp at take-off and 1,440hp at 45,000ft
Crew: 3
Wing span: 108ft 3 ¼ in
Length: 72ft 2in
Height: 18ft 4 ½ in
Empty Weight: 26,901lb
Normal Loaded Weight: 36,700lb
Maximum Loaded Weight: 39,900lb
Max Speed: 379mph
Cruising Speed: 320mph at 39,370ft
Service Ceiling: 49,500ft
Range: 1,860 miles with drop tanks


Hs 130 (航空機)

Hs 130の開発は、1939年4月11日と1940年2月20日に初飛行した2機のHs 128試作機から始まった [1] 。この試作機は、与圧キャビン、エンジン駆動のスーパーチャージャー、片持ち式主翼のテストのために使用された。この2機の試作機は、V1号機がダイムラー・ベンツ DB 601、V2号機がユンカース ユモ 210という異なる2種のエンジンを装備しており、両機共に固定式降着装置を持っていた [2] 。この試作機の評価試験は成功とは言えなかったが、高高度飛行用航空機の潜在能力がドイツ空軍の特殊偵察部隊の指揮官テオドール・ロヴェール(Theodor Rowehl)の興味を惹いた。高高度偵察飛行任務でのHs 128の潜在能力に対するロヴェールの関心により、ドイツ航空省(RLM)はヘンシェル社にHs 130Aという名称の偵察機としてHs 128の開発を続行するように指示を出した [3] 。

3機の試作機Hs 130Aが製造され [3] 、1940年5月23日に初飛行を行った [1] 。それに続き1941年初めには1段スーパーチャージャー付のDB 601Rエンジン、引き込み式降着装置を装備し、後部の収納倉に2台のRb75/30偵察カメラを搭載した前量産型のHs 130A-0'が5機製造された。その後5機のHs 130A-0で評価とテストが実施されたが、性能上の著しい問題と運用を妨げる信頼性の問題が明らかとなった [4] 。Hs 130A-0/U6の名称で、より長い主翼、ダイムラー・ベンツ DB 605Bエンジン、ヒルト社製スーパーチャージャー、GM-1 ナイトラス・オキサイド・システムと翼下に落下増槽を装備したHs 130A-0の改良型が2機製造された。1943年11月にはHs 130A-0/U6の飛行テストの準備が整い [4] 、15,500 m (50,570 ft)の高度を飛行してみせた [3] が、Hs 130A-0/U6もその他のHs 130A-0と同様に満足いくものにはならず運用飛行状態にはならなかった [ 要出典 ] 。

更なるHs 130の開発は爆撃機型へと繋がった。計画されたHs 130Bはカメラの収納倉の替わりに爆弾倉が設置された以外はHs 130Aとほぼ同じ機体であったが製造はされなかった。Hs 130Cは「B爆撃機」計画の競作機として製造され、短い主翼、遠隔操作防御銃塔、より大きくされたガラス張り(引き続き与圧式)のキャビンを備え4,000 kg (8,800 lb)までの爆弾を搭載可能なHs 130Aとは大幅に異なる機体となった。V1、V2とV3号機の3機が製造され、V1とV2号機はBMW 801 星型エンジン、完全武装を施されたV3号機はDB 603Aエンジンを装備していた [5] 。更なるHs 130の開発はHs 130Dの名称の偵察機として継続され、DB 605エンジンと複雑な2段スーパーチャージャーを装備することが計画されたが製造はされなかった [6] 。

Hs 130Eは、通常のスーパーチャージャーの替わりにHöhen Zentrale (HZ)-Anlageシステムを搭載したHs 130Aを手直しした機体であった。HZ-Anlageは、両翼に装着したDB 603Bエンジンに空気を供給する大型スーパーチャージャーを駆動するためだけの3基目のDB 605エンジンを胴体内に搭載していた [7] 。この形式のシステムは約25年前にツェッペリン=シュターケン R.VI 爆撃機のR.30/16機で最初に試されていた。もう一つのHs 130Aとの違いは、胴体内に搭載されたHZ-Anlage用エンジンの重量との釣り合いを取るために前方に延長された機首であった。主翼の下に3基のエンジンに燃料を供給する落下増槽を取り付けることもでき、胴体下には胴体内エンジン用の空気吸入口が装着されていた [2] 。

3機のHs 130Eが製造され、Hs 130E V1号機は1942年9月に初飛行を行いHZ-Anlageを作動させ12,500 m (41,010 ft)の高度に到達した。Hs 130E V2号機はエンジン出火により失われたため、この機体の代替としてV3号機が製造された [8] 。続いて前量産型のHs 130E-0が7機発注され、初号機が1943年5月に初飛行する [7] と共に遠隔操作防御銃塔と主翼下に爆弾を搭載する設備を備えることになっていたHs 130E-1が100機発注された。この発注は、解決しないHs 130E-0のHZ-Anlageシステムに起因する問題により取り消された [9] 。4基のスーパーチャージャー付BMW 801エンジンを装着することによりHZ-Anlageシステムの問題を解決すると期待されたHs 130Fが計画されたが製造はされなかった [9] 。


Airplanes in the skies + FAF history

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Only the first prototype had "smooth" cowlings from that point on, all aircraft had a tightly-fitting cowling that included 18 fairings covering the engine valves. The Henschel prototypes did away with bracing wires and although they looked slightly outdated with their single faired interplane struts and cantilever main landing gear legs attached to smaller (stub) lower wings, the Hs 123 featured an all-metal construction, clean lines and superior maneuverability.

Its biplane wings were of a "sesquiplane" configuration, whereby the lower wings were significantly smaller than the top wings.

The overall performance of the Hs 123 V1 prototype prematurely eliminated any chance for the more conventional Fi 98, which was cancelled after a sole prototype had been constructed. During testing, the Hs 123 proved capable of pulling out of "near-vertical" dives however, two prototypes subsequently crashed due to structural failures in the wings that occurred when the aircraft were tested in high-speed dives.


USAF's Oldest C-130 Hercules "Iron Horse" Has Been Sent To The Boneyard

The C-130 remains the flying backbone of America's combat forces. You need a pallet of crap moved from an air base to a dirt strip? No problem. You need a flying command post? No problem. You need to infiltrate below enemy radar to refuel helicopters in mid air? No problem. In fact, Iron Horse, the USAF's oldest C-130, has done all these things and more in its colorful life.

The 'legacy' C-130 is a blue collar airplane. It doesn't have a ton of frills, it is loud, smokey, and well worn and many have multiple vocations under their belt. Yet they work so well that the USAF has trouble sending them out to pasture. Aircraft 62-1863, an HC-130P Combat King nicknamed "Iron Horse," is one of these planes.

The 52 year old Iron Horse started out life as a nondescript C-130E, spending much of the 60s and early 70s hauling material and personnel around the Vietnam Theater of operations . It rambled on as a standard line C-130E for decades, spending many thousands of hours doing what C-130s do, which is just about everything having to do with logistics and wings.

When The CIA Proved That A Boeing 727 Can Perform Air Drops

The CIA, via its contractor Southern Air Transport, operated four 727s during the Vietnam War.…

Somewhere in its mid-life, presumably in the early 1990s, 62-1863 was converted into one of the most important, albeit obscure, aircraft in the entire USAF inventory, the EC-130E Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center. These modified C-130s, of which about eight were put into service, were incredibly capable, versatile and economical flying multi-role command and control and data-fusion platforms. There broad mission is described by FAS.org:

The EC-130E ABCCC consists of seven aircraft that are used as an Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center. The EC-130E is a modified C-130 "Hercules" aircraft designed to carry the USC-48 Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center Capsules (ABCCC III). These one-of-a kind aircraft include the addition of external antennae to accommodate the vast number of radios in the capsule, heat exchanger pods for additional air conditioning, an aerial refueling system and special mounted rails for uploading and downloading the USC-48 capsule. The ABCCC has distinctive air conditioner intakes fore of the engines ("Mickey Mouse ears"), two HF radio probes-towards the tips of both wings, and three mushroom-shaped antennas on the top of the aircraft - and, of course, numerous antennas on the belly.

As an Air Combat Command asset, ABCCC (A-B-Triple-C) is an integral part of the Tactical Air Control System. While functioning as a direct extension of ground-based command and control authorities, the primary mission is providing flexibility in the overall control of tactical air resources. In addition, to maintain positive control of air operations, ABCCC can provide communications to higher headquarters, including national command authorities, in both peace and wartime environments.

The USC-48 ABCCC III capsule, which fits into the aircraft cargo compartment, measures 40 feet long, weighs approximately 20,000 pounds and costs $9 million each. The ABCCC provides unified and theater commanders an Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center (ABCCC), with the capability for combat operations during war, contingencies, exercises, and special classified missions. A highly trained force of mission ready crew members and specially equipped EC-130E aircraft to support worldwide combat operations. Mission roles include airborne extensions of the Air Operations Center (AOC) and Airborne Air Support Operations Center (ASOC) for command and control of Offensive Air Support (OAS) operations and airborne on-scene command for special operations such as airdrops or evacuations.

The ABCCC system is a high-tech automated airborne command and control facility featuring computer generated color displays, digitally controlled communications, and rapid data retrieval. The platform's 23 fully securable radios, secure teletype, and 15 automatic fully computerized consoles, allow the battlestaff to quickly analyze current combat situations and direct offensive air support towards fast-developing targets. ABCCC, is equipped with its most recent upgrade the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System, allows real-time accountability of airborne tracks to capsule displays through data links with AWACS E-3 "Sentry" aircraft.


Undergraduate Courses

This page shows a small selection of undergraduate courses offered in the Department of History. Please see SPIRE for a list of current course offerings and to register for courses. For extended course information, see our course guides: Fall 2020 Classes Spring 2020 Face to Face Classes Spring 2020 Online Classes Spring 2021 Classes Fall 2021 Classes.

100 Western Thought to 1600 (HS)
This lecture course focuses on major thinkers and schools of thought from ancient times through the age of the Reformation. Authors include: Homer, Plato, Aristotle, Old Testament, New Testament, Augustine, Aquinas, Christine de Pisan, Machiavelli, Leonardo da Vinci, and Montaigne. The course also covers the modern interpretations of certain older texts for example, the debate in the 19th and 20th centuries about how to interpret particularly violent sections of the Old Testament.

101 Western Thought Since 1600 (HS)
This course is devoted to the history of the Western world from the seventeenth century to the present. We will explore topics including political ideologies, scientific innovations, revolutions and war, industrialization, nationalism and imperialism, and gender and popular culture. The course has two main goals: first, to provide you with a broad overview of ideas and events throughout the period, and second, to introduce you to the methods and skills of the discipline of history.

110 World History to 1500 (HS G)
This course is devoted to the history of the human experience across the globe from the earliest civilizations up to approximately 1550 CE. The course is organized into four distinct sections, each representing a major approach to studying global history. The readings of the course include a variety of primary and secondary sources in order to better analyze and understand the diversity of global norms and values and the way they change over time. The course work will emphasize the development of critical thinking and writing skills. This class fulfills the following requirements: pre- 1500 and Non-Western requirements for the history major as well as the historical studies in global perspective (HSG) portion of the General Education program. This course is taught using a Team-Based-Learning classroom. Open to freshmen and sophomores only.

112 Introduction to World Religions (IG)
Religions may have divine origins, but religious belief and practice, like everything else human, have their own histories. This course has three goals. First, we consider how the west came to understand and define religion. Second, we turn to the origins and development of some of the world’s major religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Finally, we will consider the new religions of the twentieth century, the confrontations and conversations between different religions, and the processes and effects of secularization. We will examine not only religious belief but also ritual practice and the place of religion in today’s society. Understanding why we think about religion in the ways that we do, the history of religions, and issues of importance to the practice of religion today is a vital part of being a citizen of a democracy in this global age.

112H Introduction to World History (Honors IG)
World Religions introduces students to historical, geographical, scriptural, and ideological aspects of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and indigenous practices. The first part of the course will be mastering facts about these traditions, with exams used to determine grades. The last weeks of the class will stress class discussion, covering broader questions such as: "Are the religions studied ideologically compatible or irreducibly incommensurate?" "Are the mystical strains of these traditions compatible with their mainstream manifestations?" and "How are the religions used to promote military conflict? Could they actually reduce the likelihood of war?" Readings will start with Huston Smith's The Illustrated World Religions, with excursions into Scriptural and anthropological sources that embellish the themes raised by Smith. This class is open to honors students only.

115 Modern China, 1600-Present (HS G)
This is a survey of Chinese history from 1600 to the present day. We will cover topics including: the rise and fall of the Qing Dynasty Chinese-Western encounters internal threats to the Confucian state transformation of Chinese thought and culture in the 19th century the revolutions of the 20th century the rise of Mao Zedong the People's Republic of China the Cultural Revolution and the dramatic transformations China is undergoing today as a result of economic and political reforms since Mao's death. No prior study of Chinese history is assumed.

116 History of Japan (HS G)
This survey class is a journey through the social, cultural, political economic and religious developments in Japan since 1800. We’ll go from the 18th-century kabuki stage and the samurai castle to the military barracks and factory floor behind Japanese imperialism to the crowded trains and hip-hop-filled streets of Harajuku in 21st-century Tokyo. We will examine how much Japan has changed, but also much about the lines of continuity that run from the past to the present through a textbook and a few short scholarly pieces. The course also aims to humanize the history of the Japanese people through first-hand accounts ranging from diary, letter, newspaper, play, and novel excerpts to government documents, comic books, paintings, photos, and other sources. Students will leave this course equipped with the information and tools needed to acknowledge and understand the vividness and complexity of Japan, its position in East Asia and the world, and its special relationship with the United States.

120 Latin America: Colonial Period (HS G)
General view of the cultural, economic, and political development of Latin America, 1492 to 1824. Topics include the Iberian and Indian backgrounds Spanish and Portuguese imperial organization role of Indians, Blacks, and Europeans in the New World the coming of independence.

121 Modern Latin America (HS G)
This course examines the creation of modern Latin America, concentrating on struggles over land and labor, the creation of nation-states, and the conflicts within those states over issues of citizenship and social justice. The course also addresses the contentious role the United States has played in the region.

130 Middle East History I (HS G)
This is a survey course about the Middle East from the rise of Islam in the 7th century until 1300. It covers the formation of Islamic belief systems and cultures, the creation of "Islamic" polities and societies, and challenges from outsiders, whether Crusaders from the West, or Turks and Mongols from the East.

131 Middle East History II (HS G)
Survey of the Middle East from 1500. For course purposes, the Middle East includes the territory from Algeria to Iran and from Turkey to the Arabian Peninsula. Course focuses on the political, economic, and intellectual trends that have shaped the Middle East as we know it. General topics include the Ottoman and Safavid Empires, the impact of European imperialism, the construction of nationalism, Zionism, Islamism, capitalism, the "Arab Spring" and how all of this impacts current events in this complex region.

150 U.S. History to 1876 (HS)
This course covers topics in social, political, economic, and intellectual history in the United States from the colonial era through the U.S. Civil War. Topics may include: colonial societies slavery the slave trade the American Revolution abolition and social reform movements territorial expansion and war Native American communities immigration art and literature presidential politics the Sectional Crisis and Civil War. Students will be expected to read both primary documents and secondary literature on these topics.

151 U.S. History Since 1876 (HS)
This course will provide students with an understanding of the contours of American history from the period of Reconstruction through the late twentieth century. The course explores the politics and culture of the period, as well as the interactions of race, class, and gender in U.S. history. Particular attention will be paid to African American history, Native American history, and women’s history. Primary source readings will be emphasized.

161 History of Africa Since 1500 (HS G)
Topics to be covered include African and European imperialism, colonialism, nationalism, and independence. The main objective of the course is to assess how these developments have changed the lives and cultures of African people. No pre-requisites.

170 Indigenous Peoples of North America (HS U)
This course is an overview of the historical experiences of indigenous peoples in North America from the early contact period to the present day. While we can only cover a few culture groups in depth (the indigenous peoples of North America spoke over 500 different languages before European contact), the major themes relate to all groups: pre-contact histories and the writing of academic history colonization and resistance subsistence and dependency Native religions and Christianity changing family and gender relations the impact of the American Revolution and Manifest Destiny scientific racism education and (non)assimilation Red Power and current issues including struggles over land, sovereignty and treaty rights.

180 Western Science and Technology I (HS)
Hist 180 and its companion Hist 181 have two goals: first, to explore the ways in which science and technology have helped various Western societies make sense of, and manipulate, their worlds and themselves and second, to appreciate how science and technology reflect their historical periods and contexts. Part I explores the Greek fascination with modeling the cosmos and with the nature of formal scientific explanation the roots of Western technological dynamism in the Middle Ages the role of Scholasticism and the medieval university in the institutionalization of scientific thought and the creation of a new quantitative framework of experience by Renaissance explorers, engineers, merchants, and astronomers. Part II covers the centuries from the Scientific Revolution to the Space Age. Both parts are designed to meet the University’s requirements for General Education and Historical Studies by introducing you to subjects and perspectives you might not otherwise encounter, and by offering opportunities for the exercise of skills of reading, writing, and analysis. They should also open up a fascinating past and help us all become critically informed participants in and consumers of modern technoscience. There are no pre-requisites, although some background in Western Civilization is a great help.

181 Western Science and Technology II (HS)
This sequel to History 180 surveys Western science and technology in their cultural context from the Scientific Revolution to the Cold War. The course introduces students to key scientific ideas of the modern age through the lens of social, political, and intellectual history. Important themes include the social organization of science, the creation scientific spaces and sites for the production of scientific knowledge, and the role of technology in both science and the basic infrastructure of modern life. Course topics will vary widely, including subjects such as the Copernican view of the universe, Darwinian evolution in science and society, the quantum revolution in 20th century physics, and the Space Race. Readings will consist of primary and secondary sources short research and response papers will be assigned. No pre-requisites, although previous exposure to a course in modern European or American history is helpful.


Ursuline closure ends 130-year chapter of local history

The nine Ursuline nuns from Brown County, Ohio, who got off the train in Santa Rosa in 1880 to organize the "Select School for Girls" under the auspices of St. Rose Catholic Church expected to have 40 students in their first semester.

They had come to Santa Rosa at the behest of the Rev. John Conway, pastor of St. Rose, who had assured the Sisters their boarding school would overflow with students.

The first semester, two students enrolled. Undaunted, the Sisters persisted. Their aim was a quality education for young women.

Jeannette Squires Clark, Petaluma, class of '54, is the oldest of three Squires sisters who graduated from Ursuline.

Hearing the news Tuesday of the school's closing, she spoke to her sisters, Kathleen Wilhoit and Bernadette Wilson.

"They feel as I do," Clark said, "That it was part of our life. Our parents weren't wealthy, but this meant everything to them, to have this education for their daughters.

"For daughters in that era, it was the epitome of a good education. We were college trained."

The Ursuline nuns of 1880 moved into an elaborate, two-story Italianate Victorian on B Street built in the 1870s by the Disciples of Christ Church as a school, known as Santa Rosa Christian College.

It closed in 1879 and the Catholic diocese bought it and handed it over to these Sisters of St. Ursula, who had no idea what to expect from their new adventure.

They had come to teach Latin and music and instill values in the young ladies of an area not far removed from a frontier. They had not counted on the labor involved in preparing a building that had been sitting empty for at least a year.

We know about the trials of those dedicated early teachers, of the scrubbing and dusting and window washing – and the praying – from letters written by Sister Ligouri to the Ohio convent.

"The dust is perfectly awful and the flies are of gigantic size and exceedingly impudent," she wrote, indicating a sense of humor as well as sense of commitment.

The heavy housework was just the beginning. Even with the new St. Rose Church sharing their five-acre campus, the Ursuline Academy was slow to grow in the first 20 years. While boarding students made up a substantial part of the enrollment, there was still just one graduate in the spring of 1900.

In the next 50 years however, the Sisters' prayers were answered. By the middle of the 20th century, Ursuline was a well-respected all-girls' school with both resident and day students from all over Northern California.

In 1958, after the school relocated to new buildings north of town in its present location, the old school building was demolished.

In 1980, celebrating its centennial, the school had an enrollment of 380 young women. But parochial education was changing. Ursuline nuns once provided most of the faculty for not only Ursuline but for St. Rose Elementary School and a nursery school. Salaried lay teachers were the exception rather than the rule. But the ranks of religious teaching orders have diminished in recent years.

At last count, there were no nuns teaching at either St. Rose or Ursuline.

Barbara Johannes of Santa Rosa, who was part of the Ursuline faculty for 32 years, as teacher, administrator and, from 2004 to 2007, principal, said, "The news saddens me because the school has been doing good things. It comes as a surprise and I'll be interested to see what comes next. This will leave a big gap in our educational community."

For students from the 1950s, the news of Ursuline's closing came with the sadness of an obituary notice.

Said Clark: "I don't think it was because it was a Catholic education. It had more to do with being a well-rounded individual who happened to be Catholic. This would rock my Mom, because it was so important to her."

Her classmate, Nancy Moran of Santa Rosa, a leader in the Ursuline Alumni Association, said the campus was a sad place Tuesday afternoon as the rumors that had circulated among the student body were confirmed.

"Word leaked out," she said. "Economic times dictate what has to happen, but loyal alums are very, very sad. I have tons of phone calls to return."

"It's 130 years of education in Sonoma County ending," Moran said. "Families, generations, have gone through Ursuline."


Summary

In this post you discovered the importance of collecting and reviewing metrics during the training of your deep learning models.

You learned about the History callback in Keras and how it is always returned from calls to the fit() function to train your models. You learned how to create plots from the history data collected during training.

Do you have any questions about model training history or about this post? Ask your question in the comments and I will do my best to answer.


Henschel Hs 130 - History

The picture left shows a preserved Hs.293A-1 at the RAF Museum in Cosford, England.

It clearly shows the winged design with attached rocket and tail unit carrying the control surfaces.

Henschel Flugzeug Werke had been working on a guided bomb project before the outbreak of the war. The Askania and Siemens companies had been developing autopilots and the DVL had commissioned airframes to test these from the Schwartz Propeller Werke in 1937. The initial launchings of these airframes were unsuccessful and the remainder were transferred to the guided weapons study group at Henschel.

Henschel had proposed an unmanned bomber project which had been commissioned shortly after the outbreak of the war. Dr Herbert Wagner joined the development team in early 1940 and a radio-controlled glider bomb was the result, which, fitted with the Walter HWK 109-507 rocket motor became designated the Hs.293.


The first flight test of an Hs.293 missile was on 16 th December 1940 and was a failure, as the left and right control circuits were inadvertently reversed in the assembly. The second flight on 18 th December was a complete success, with further tests showing promise, as some inadequacies in the Siemens control system were able to be corrected. In service trials, bomb aimers reported difficulties visually tracking the missiles against the ground and the sea, so a unit containing a flare was fitted in the tail unit which could be seen from the parent aircraft, but would not be obvious to anti-aircraft gunners on the ground.

Henschel Hs.293 guided bombs were (together with "Fritz X" guided bombs) worked into the inventory of KG 100 which used Dornier Do.217 bombers to carry them. The bomb aimer used a small joystick to guide the bomb onto the target, and with some practice, crews could deliver the ordnance with some degree of accuracy.

Operational Use.

KG 100 used the Hs.293 in operations in Southern England, the Bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean between March 1943 and April 1944.

The first successful use of the Hs.293 was by II/KG 100 on 27 th August 1943 with the destruction of the British corvette H.M.S. Egret in the Bay of Biscay.

In September 1943 II/KG 100 was moved from Istres in France to Foggia to support III/KG 100 trying to repulse the allied landings at Salerno. III/KG 100 with the Fritz X had had some successes amongst the tightly packed warships with direct hits on cruisers H.M.S. Uganda and U.S.S. Savanna, and H.M.S. Warspite. However, with the arrival of allied fighters onto the mainland, III/KG 100 operations were curtailed and II/KG 100's anti-shipping sorties with their Hs.293 were flown at night. These operational conditions were not suited to visual tracking of low-level missiles and success was elusive, with aircraft evacuating Foggia on 17 th September.

The success of the guided bomb programme led the Luftwaffe to add operations to KG 40, the Atlantic anti-shipping force, I/KG 40 with Heinkel He.177 A-5s and II/KG 40 and III/KG 40 with Dornier Do.217s, all armed with Henschel Hs.293 missiles, augmenting the KG 100 force in France.

Further actions in the Mediterranean followed, until a convoy attack in the Gulf of Bougie led to the loss of seven aircraft and four complete crews. Consolidation and resting of crews then took the force to January 1944 when following an attack on a convoy off Oran, it was moved to Northern Italy to support the defence of Anzio. H.M.S. Spartan, a British cruiser was sunk, but the Allies had by this time begun to develop serious counter measures. The Royal Aircraft Establishment ("RAE") had received HS.293 pieces for analysis in September 1943, and substantial parts in October 1943, revealing many of the operational aspects of the Hs.293 system. Manouvering techniques for ships under attack, anti-aircraft gunners targetting both the missile and the attacking aircraft, the use of smoke screens and electronic jamming all but made the use of anti-shipping guided bombs impossible. Operations ceased after March 1944.

It seems that the Germans were unaware of the Allies' electronic jamming, and despite the equipment to counter this being available in 1944, made no attempt to alter the 50 MHz carrier signal for the missiles, blaming increasing losses on the increasing incidence of inexperienced bomb aimers as experienced crews were lost.

Conclusion.

A translation of a Luftwaffe report on the operational use of guided missiles by KG 100 listed a total of 65 operations with 487 aircraft (both Fritz X and Hs.293). A total of 500 rounds were carried, but a number were lost with their aircraft, or returned to base. At the target, 319 bombs were dropped, of which 215 correctly functioned, with a 49.3% hit rate. Taken against the concurrent Allied night bombing success rate, this was phenomenally high.

In all, 79 enemy naval units, including 40 warships and 39 merchant ships of a gross registered tonnage of 291,000 tons were either partially or totally put out of action, for the loss of 48 aircraft.

The greatest proportion of lost operations was due to unfavourable conditions at the target, with technical failures much lower (only 7.5% due to trouble with the remote control system).

Luftwaffe operations with the Hs.293 at the beginning of the campaign were successful due to two main factors. Firstly the crews were well trained and experienced. Secondly, the weapon was novel and the allies were not prepared with counter measures. With attrition of the longer term bomber crews the success rate fell. However, the effect of allied fighter superiority had a large effect on weapon accuracy. The presence of fighters made it difficult for the bombers to keep a steady course, so bomb aimers could not keep their missiles in view all the way to the target. Eventually, daylight fighter superiority forced the bombers to fly at night, making the effective identification of targets and accurate tracking of the weapons very difficult.

The Luftwaffe was also very lax in not testing the frequency band of the control signals of the missiles for jamming signals. Once launched, missiles subjected to jamming would appear to the operator to fly towards the target, but the reason for an unsuccessful impact would not then be apparant. It seems from the report, that the Luftwaffe had no idea that the control signals were not being received by the errant missile.


Le projet remonte à l'année 1938, quand le Dr. Friedrich Seewald, du Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt (de) (Laboratoire d'essais allemand pour l'aviation) de Berlin-Adlershof (DVL), demande à Henschel de construire un avion expérimental de haute altitude pour essayer des cabines pressurisées et les turbocompresseurs du programme DVL. Il en résulte un programme de développement important de cabines pressurisées qui mènera au Henschel Hs 128 V1. Celui-ci vole en 1939 à Adlershof, avec deux moteurs DB 601 et un turbocompresseur DVL. Le Hs 128 V2 possède la même aile d'une envergure de 26 mètres, mais il est équipé de moteurs Junkers Jumo 210 avec turbocompresseurs à deux étages. On prévoit qu'il atteindra une altitude supérieure à 15 000 m .

En novembre 1940, trois nouveaux prototypes de l'appareil, rebaptisé "Henschel 130", volent. Le Hs 130A est un avion de reconnaissance à envergure plus courte, équipé de caméras télécommandées. On essaie dessus divers moteurs DB 601 ou Daimler-Benz DB 605, et finalement l'envergure dépasse celle des Hs 128 dans la série des A-0/06 de 1943.

Le bombardier Hs 130B, n'est pas construit, mais il y aura trois bombardiers Hs 130C dans le programme Bomber-B de 1939-1942. Ceux-ci sont des avions entièrement nouveaux, munis de moteurs DB 603 de 1 850 ch , avec un équipage de quatre hommes, deux barbettes contenant des mitrailleuses lourdes MG 131 jumelées, plus une mitrailleuse légère MG 15 dans la queue. Les moteurs destinés au Hs 130D ne sont pas construits. Le stade final est atteint avec le HZ-Anlage de la série Hs 130E comportant deux moteurs DB 603B surcompressés par un Daimler-Benz DB 605T placé dans le fuselage. Le Hs 130E V1 vole en septembre 1942. Plusieurs variantes voleront plus tard, effectivement à des altitudes proches de 15 000 m . Enfin, le He 130F, s'il avait été réalisé, aurait dû être équipé de quatre moteurs BMW 801TJ de 1 800 ch ,


The Curriculum Choice authors have active blogs where they regularly offer ideas and experiences about their homeschool adventures. Below are their favorite American history resources.

Heidi from Start At Eight

It is no secret that Historical Fiction is a favorite subject of mine. Here is the landing page for all things Historical Fiction. Including events like the Titanic sinking as well as wars like the Civil War and historical figures like Columbus.

U.S. Elections Unit Study – Another great way to study history is through unit studies. Here is a great one for learning about our presidential election process. You can use this as well as these Mostly FREE Election Resources.

United States Court System – A two part unit study for middle and high school students.

Create Your Own Atlas – This is a great project for young and old alike. Can be used for World or United States with simple modifications.

For all things American (and history in general) check out these Pinterest Helps for Homeschool History – great boards to follow with tons of ideas, resources and projects broken down into categories.

Our Favorites for High School American History – Are you looking for frugal resources for your teen’s US History studies?
Here’s how we made our own course, using living literature, pairing it with primary resources, US geography, with a great spine from Rainbow Resource, and even American Art History, to add to the mix.

Our Favorites for US History – Elementary – With living literature, hands-on activities, and short lessons, written directly to the student, we loved studying about our country’s history. This post includes a link to free printables from Education.com.

The Patriot’s History Reader – My Review – This book goes back to the sources, including the documents, speeches and legal decisions that made our country great, and it added a lot to our US History in high school.

Kyle McVay from Aspired Living

Resources for Studying the American Revolution – A list of resources that we use in conjunction with Mystery of History to study the American Revolution.

Planning for Mystery of History Volume 4 – This is the final volume in the Mystery of History Series which, if you are unfamiliar with the series, covers world history. The final volume however covers a great deal of American History including all of the wars as well as major American historical events.

I’m a big believer in using living literature to help teach history. We’ve read some really good books over the years! Here are our favorite Early American History books and here are our favorite Modern American History books.

Since we love living literature so much, sometimes textbooks can drive us crazy. I’ve come to love using informational books as our textbooks and using them as our springboard for learning activities.

We’ve also used lots and lots of unit studies over the years that have been full of great books, hands-on learning, and field trips. We LOVE history in our homeschool!

Susan & Megan at Education Possible

100+ American History Lessons and Activities for Homeschoolers – To help make your family’s study of American history even more interesting we have gathered more than 100+ American history lessons and activities from some of our favorite homeschool bloggers to share with you!

6 Pioneer Crafts for Teens to Make – Items that we consider crafts today, were created to be useful tools by the American Pioneers. Days were long and full of challenges, so everything they made served a purpose. Functionality was key, especially in the early to mid 1800s.

History and Art – We’ve found that a wonderful follow up activity to a history field trip or a study is to create art around the topic. We have several art tutorials connected to our history studies including this Civil War Cannon, American Flag, Washington Monument and more. We love this combination so much that we have a series of American History Video Art Lessons of key topics to complement your history studies.

What I’ve Learned Homeschooling with Tapestry of Grace – (My full review of Tapestry of Grace is here at The Curriculum Choice). One of those wonderful benefits of homeschooling is continuing to learn right alongside your children. History, a love of art, composers, nature study. I just love continuing education. For many years now, Tapestry of Grace has truly woven together all the learning in our home. All ages learning the same topics, on their age, grade and skill level.

Homeschool Makeover: History Shelf – the solution to this problem: Spending time searching for what we needed to start our history studies. History books scattered throughout the house. Supplemental material getting lost in my stacks.

Civil War Field Trips and Resources – A giant list! Two years ago we studied the Civil War as part of our Tapestry of Grace studies. It just so happens that 2014 was the 150th anniversary of the Civil War here on Georgia soil. There were several commemorative events and activities that enriched our learning about this part of our American history.


130 New Prompts for Argumentative Writing

Questions on everything from mental health and sports to video games and dating. Which ones inspire you to take a stand?

Note: We have an updated version of this list, with300 new argumentative writing prompts.

What issues do you care most about? What topics do you find yourself discussing passionately, whether online, at the dinner table, in the classroom or with your friends?

In Unit 5 of our free yearlong writing curriculum and related Student Editorial Contest, we invite students to research and write about the issues that matter to them, whether that’s Shakespeare, health care, standardized testing or being messy.

But with so many possibilities, where does one even begin? Try our student writing prompts.

In 2017, we compiled a list of 401 argumentative writing prompts, all drawn from our daily Student Opinion column. Now, we’re rounding up 130 more we’ve published since then (available here as a PDF). Each prompt links to a free Times article as well as additional subquestions that can help you think more deeply about it.

You might use this list to inspire your own writing and to find links to reliable resources about the issues that intrigue you. But even if you’re not participating in our contest, you can use these prompts to practice the kind of low-stakes writing that can help you hone your argumentation skills.

So scroll through the list below with questions on everything from sports and mental health to dating and video games and see which ones inspire you to take a stand.

Please note: Many of these prompts are still open to comment by students 13 and up.