Julia Luckenbach Str - History

Julia Luckenbach Str - History

Julia Luckenbach

Former name retained.

(Str: dp. 16,533; 1. 456'6"; b. 57'2"; dr. 31'6"; s. 14 k; cpl. 70; a. 14", 13")

Julia Luckenbach, a cargo ship, was built 1917 by Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, Mass. for the Luckenbach S.S. Co.; she was taken over by the Navy 7 August 1918, and commissioned 15 August, Lt. Cmdr. George C. Benner, USNRF, in command.

Assigned to NOTS, Julia Luckenbach sailed from New York 10 September with vital cargo for the European forces, arriving Marseilles 2 weeks later. After the Armstice was signed 11 November 1918, she continued transporting cargo to France while returning to the United States with troops, patients, and other veterans who had fought well to make "the world safe for democracy." Julia Luckenbach arrived in New York from her final cruise in July 1919 and remained there until she decommissioned 9 September 1919. She was returned to her owners the same day.

The Julia REPL

Julia comes with a full-featured interactive command-line REPL (read-eval-print loop) built into the julia executable. In addition to allowing quick and easy evaluation of Julia statements, it has a searchable history, tab-completion, many helpful keybindings, and dedicated help and shell modes. The REPL can be started by simply calling julia with no arguments or double-clicking on the executable:

To exit the interactive session, type ^D – the control key together with the d key on a blank line – or type exit() followed by the return or enter key. The REPL greets you with a banner and a julia> prompt.


Roberts was born on October 28, 1967, in Smyrna, Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta, [1] [9] to Betty Lou Bredemus (1934–2015) and Walter Grady Roberts (1933–1977). [1] [9] [10] She is of English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, German, and Swedish descent. [11] [12] Her father was a Baptist, her mother a Catholic, [13] and she was raised Catholic. [14] [15] Her older brother Eric Roberts (b. 1956), from whom she was estranged for several years until 2004, older sister Lisa Roberts Gillan (b. 1965), and niece Emma Roberts, are also actors. She also had a younger half-sister named Nancy Motes (1976–2014).

Roberts' parents, one-time actors and playwrights, met while performing in theatrical productions for the armed forces. They later co-founded the Atlanta Actors and Writers Workshop in Atlanta, off Juniper Street in Midtown. They ran a children's acting school in Decatur, Georgia, while they were expecting Julia. The children of Coretta and Martin Luther King Jr. attended the school Walter Roberts served as acting coach for their daughter, Yolanda. [16] As a thank-you for his service, Mrs. King paid Mrs. Roberts's hospital bill when Julia was born. [17]

Her parents married in 1955. Her mother filed for divorce in 1971 the divorce was finalized in early 1972. [18] From 1972, Roberts lived in Smyrna, Georgia, where she attended Fitzhugh Lee Elementary School, Griffin Middle School, and Campbell High School. [19] In 1972, her mother married Michael Motes, who was abusive and often unemployed Roberts despised him. [20] The couple had Nancy, who died at 37 on February 9, 2014, of an apparent drug overdose. [21] The marriage ended in 1983, with Betty Lou divorcing Motes on cruelty grounds she had stated that marrying him was the biggest mistake of her life. [20] Roberts's own father died of cancer when she was ten. [22]

Roberts wanted to be a veterinarian as a child. [23] She also played the clarinet in her school band. [24] [25] After graduating from Smyrna's Campbell High School, she attended Georgia State University but did not graduate. She later headed to New York City to pursue a career in acting. Once there, she signed with the Click Modeling Agency and enrolled in acting classes. [26] [27]

Late 1980s: Early roles

Roberts made her first big screen appearance in the film Satisfaction (1988), alongside Liam Neeson and Justine Bateman, as a band member looking for a summer gig. She had previously performed a small role opposite her brother Eric, in Blood Red (she has two words of dialogue), filmed in 1987, although it was not released until 1989. Her first television appearance was as a juvenile rape victim in the initial season of the series Crime Story with Dennis Farina, in the episode titled "The Survivor", broadcast on February 13, 1987. Her first critical success with moviegoers was her performance in the independent film Mystic Pizza in 1988 [28] that same year, she had a role in the fourth-season finale of Miami Vice. In 1989, she was featured in Steel Magnolias, as a young bride with diabetes, and received both her first Academy Award nomination (as Best Supporting Actress) and first Golden Globe Award win (Motion Picture Best Supporting Actress) for her performance. [28]

1990s: Breakthrough and rise to prominence

Roberts became known to worldwide audiences when she starred with Richard Gere in the Cinderella–Pygmalionesque story, Pretty Woman, in 1990, playing an assertive freelance hooker with a heart of gold. [28] Roberts won the role after Michelle Pfeiffer, Molly Ringwald, Meg Ryan, Jennifer Jason Leigh, Karen Allen, and Daryl Hannah (her co-star in Steel Magnolias) turned it down. [29] The role also earned her a second Oscar nomination, this time as Best Actress, and second Golden Globe Award win, as Motion Picture Best Actress (Musical or Comedy). [28] Pretty Woman saw the highest number of ticket sales in the U.S. ever for a romantic comedy, [30] and made $463.4 million worldwide. [31]

Roberts starred as one of five students conducting clandestine experiments that produce near-death experiences in the supernatural thriller Flatliners, in 1990. Her next film was the commercially successful thriller Sleeping with the Enemy (1991), in which she took on the role of a battered wife who escapes her abusive husband, played by Patrick Bergin, and begins a new life in Iowa. Roberts played Tinkerbell in Steven Spielberg's Hook, and starred as a nurse in Joel Schumacher's romance film Dying Young both films were also released in 1991, to a highly positive commercial response. [32] [33]

Roberts took a two-year hiatus from the screen, during which she made no films other than a cameo appearance in Robert Altman's The Player (1992). In early 1993, she was the subject of a People magazine cover story asking, "What Happened to Julia Roberts?". [34] Roberts starred with Denzel Washington in the thriller The Pelican Brief (1993), based on John Grisham's 1992 novel of the same name. [28] In it, she played a young law student who uncovers a conspiracy, putting herself and others in danger. The film was a commercial success, grossing $195.2 million worldwide. [35] [36] None of her next film releases – I Love Trouble (1994), Prêt-à-Porter (1994) and Something to Talk About (1995) – were particularly well received by critics. [37] [38] [39] In 1996, she guest-starred in the second season of Friends (episode 13, "The One After the Superbowl"), [40] and appeared with Liam Neeson in the historical drama Michael Collins, [28] portraying Kitty Kiernan, the fiancée of the assassinated Irish revolutionary leader. Stephen Frears' Mary Reilly, her other 1996 film, was a critical and commercial failure. [41] [42]

By the late 1990s, Roberts enjoyed renewed success in the romantic comedy genre. In My Best Friend's Wedding (1997), she starred opposite Dermot Mulroney, Cameron Diaz and Rupert Everett, as a food critic who realizes she's in love with her best friend and tries to win him back after he decides to marry someone else. The film was a global box-office hit [43] and is considered to be one of the best romantic comedy films of all time. [44] [45] In 1998, Roberts appeared on Sesame Street opposite the character Elmo, and starred in the drama Stepmom, alongside Susan Sarandon, [46] revolving around the complicated relationship between a terminally-ill mother and the future stepmother of her children. While reviews were mixed, [46] the film made $159.7 million worldwide. [47]

Roberts paired with Hugh Grant for Notting Hill (1999), portraying a famous actress falling in love with a struggling book store owner. The film displaced Four Weddings and a Funeral as the biggest British hit in the history of cinema, with earnings equalling $363 million worldwide. [48] An exemplar of modern romantic comedies in mainstream culture, the film was also received well by critics. CNN reviewer Paul Clinton called Roberts "the queen of the romantic comedy [whose] reign continues", and remarked: "Notting Hill stands alone as another funny and heartwarming story about love against all odds." [49] She reunited with Richard Gere and Garry Marshall, both of Pretty Woman, to play a woman who has left a string of fiancés at the altar in Runaway Bride, also released in 1999. Runaway Bride received generally mixed reviews from critics, [50] [51] [52] [53] but it did very well at the box office, grossing $309.4 million around the globe. [54] Roberts was a guest star in "Empire", a Season 9 episode of the television series Law & Order, with regular cast member Benjamin Bratt, who at the time, was her boyfriend. Her performance earned her a nomination for Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series. [55]

2000s: Worldwide recognition and critical acclaim

In 2000, Roberts portrayed real-life environmental activist Erin Brockovich in her fight against the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) of California in the film Erin Brockovich, for which she became the first actress to be paid $20 million for a film [56] Rolling Stone magazine's Peter Travers wrote, "Roberts shows the emotional toll on Erin as she tries to stay responsible to her children and to a job that has provided her with a first taste of self-esteem", [57] while Entertainment Weekly critic Owen Gleiberman felt that it was a "delight to watch Roberts, with her flirtatious sparkle and undertow of melancholy". [58] Erin Brockovich made $256.3 million worldwide, [59] and Roberts won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her role. In December 2000, Roberts, who had been the highest-paid actress through the 1990s, became the first actress to make The Hollywood Reporter ' s list of the 50 most influential women in show business since the list had begun in 1992. [3] In the same year, her Shoelace Productions company received a deal with Joe Roth. [60]

Roberts' first film following Erin Brockovich was the road gangster comedy, The Mexican (2001), giving her a chance to work with long-time friend Brad Pitt. The film's script was originally intended to be filmed as an independent production without major motion picture stars, but Roberts and Pitt, who had for some time been looking for a project they could do together, learned about it and decided to sign on. Though advertised as a typical romantic comedy star vehicle, the film does not focus solely on the Pitt/Roberts relationship and the two shared relatively little screen time together. The Mexican earned $66.8 million at the U.S. box office. [61]

Her next film, the romantic comedy America's Sweethearts (also 2001), starred Roberts along with Billy Crystal, John Cusack, and Catherine Zeta-Jones. Directed by Joe Roth, the Hollywood farce centers on a supercouple, Gwen and Eddie, who separate when she dumps him for another man. Roberts portrayed Gwen's once-overweight sister and assistant who has been secretly in love with Eddie (Cusack) for years. Reviews of the film were generally unfavorable: critics' felt that despite its famous cast, the movie lacked "sympathetic characters" and was "only funny in spurts." [62] A commercial success, it grossed over $138 million worldwide, however. [63]

In fall 2001, Roberts teamed with Erin Brockovich director Steven Soderbergh for Ocean's Eleven, a comedy-crime caper film and remake of the 1960 Rat Pack film of the same name, featuring an ensemble cast including George Clooney, Brad Pitt, and Matt Damon. Roberts played Tess Ocean, the ex-wife of leader Danny Ocean (Clooney), originally played by Angie Dickinson, who is dating a casino owner played by Andy García. A success with critics and at the box office alike, Ocean's Eleven became the fifth highest-grossing film of the year with a total of $450 million worldwide. [64]

In 2003, Roberts was cast in Mike Newell's drama film Mona Lisa Smile, also starring Kirsten Dunst, Maggie Gyllenhaal, and Julia Stiles. Roberts received a record $25 million for her portrayal of a forward-thinking art history professor at Wellesley College in 1953 – the highest ever earned by an actress until then. [65] The film garnered largely lukewarm reviews by critics, who found it "predictable and safe". [66]

In 2004, Roberts replaced Cate Blanchett in Mike Nichols's Closer, a romantic drama film written by Patrick Marber, based on his award-winning 1997 play of the same name. [67] The film also starred Jude Law, Natalie Portman, and Clive Owen. [67] Also in 2004, she reprised the role of Tess Ocean in the sequel Ocean's Twelve. The film was deliberately much more unconventional than the first, epitomized by a sequence in which Roberts' character impersonates the real-life Julia Roberts, due to what the film's characters believe is their strong resemblance. [68] Though less well reviewed than Eleven, the film became another major success at the box office, with a gross of $363 million worldwide, mostly from its international run. [69] Unlike all the male cast members, Roberts did not appear in the series' third and final installment, Ocean's Thirteen (2007), due to script issues. [70] In 2005, she was featured in the music video for the single "Dreamgirl" by the Dave Matthews Band it was her first music video appearance. [71] Roberts appeared in The Hollywood Reporter's list of the 10 highest-paid actresses every year from 2002 (when the magazine began compiling its list) to 2005. [5]

Besides providing her voice for roles in the 2006 animated films The Ant Bully and Charlotte's Web, [72] [73] Roberts made her Broadway debut on April 19, 2006, as Nan in a revival of Richard Greenberg's 1997 play Three Days of Rain opposite Bradley Cooper and Paul Rudd. Although the play grossed nearly $1 million in ticket sales during its first week [74] and was a commercial success throughout its limited run, her performance drew criticism. Ben Brantley of The New York Times described Roberts as being fraught with "self-consciousness (especially in the first act) [and] only glancingly acquainted with the two characters she plays." [75] Brantley also criticized the overall production, writing that "it's almost impossible to discern its artistic virtues from this wooden and splintered interpretation, directed by Joe Mantello." [75] Writing in the New York Post, Clive Barnes declared, "Hated the play. To be sadly honest, even hated her. At least I liked the rain—even if three days of it can seem an eternity." [76]

Her next film was Charlie Wilson's War, with Tom Hanks and Philip Seymour Hoffman, directed by Mike Nichols Roberts played socialite Joanne Herring, the love interest of Democratic Texas Congressman Charles Wilson. It was released on December 21, 2007, [77] to critical acclaim, [78] with Roberts eventually earning her sixth Golden Globe nomination. [79] Fireflies in the Garden, an independent drama in which Roberts played a mother whose death sets the story in motion, also starred Ryan Reynolds and Willem Dafoe the film was screened at the 2008 Berlin International Film Festival and was subsequently shown in European cinemas—it did not get a North American release until 2011. [80] In 2009, Roberts starred with Clive Owen in the moderately successful comic thriller Duplicity, playing a CIA agent collaborating with another spy to carry out a complicated con. [81] For her performance, she received her seventh Golden Globe nomination. Also in 2009, Lancôme announced that Roberts would become their global ambassador for their company. [82]

2010s: Established actress

In 2010, Roberts played an U.S. Army captain on a one-day leave, as part of a large ensemble cast, in the romantic comedy Valentine's Day, and starred as an author finding herself following a divorce in the film adaptation of Eat Pray Love. While she received $3 million up front against 3 percent of the gross for her six-minute role in Valentine's Day, [83] Eat Pray Love had the highest debut at the box office for Roberts in a top-billed role since America's Sweethearts. [84] [85] Later in the year, she signed a five-year extension with Lancôme for $50 million. [86]

In 2011, she appeared as a college teacher and the love interest of a middle-aged man returning to education in the romantic comedy Larry Crowne, opposite Tom Hanks, who directed and played the title role. [87] The movie received generally mediocre reviews, [88] although Roberts's comedic performance was praised. [89] In Mirror Mirror (2012), the Tarsem Singh adaptation of Snow White, Roberts portrayed Queen Clementianna, Snow White's evil stepmother, opposite Lily Collins. [90]

In 2013, Roberts starred alongside Meryl Streep and Ewan McGregor in the black comedy drama August: Osage County, about a dysfunctional family that re-unites into the familial house when their patriarch suddenly disappears. [91] Her performance earned her nominations for the Golden Globe Award, Screen Actors Guild Award, Critics' Choice Award, and Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, amongst other accolades. [92] [93] [94] [95] It was her fourth Academy Award nomination. [96]

In 2014, Roberts starred as Dr. Emma Brookner, a character based on Dr. Linda Laubenstein, [97] [98] in the television adaptation of Larry Kramer's AIDS-era play, The Normal Heart, which aired on HBO the film was critically acclaimed and Vanity Fair, in its review, wrote: "Roberts, meanwhile, hums with righteous, Erin Brokovich-ian anger. Between this and August: Osage County, she's carving out a nice new niche for herself, playing brittle women who show their love and concern through explosive temper". [99] Her role garnered her a nomination for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie. [100] She also narrated "Women in Hollywood", an episode of the second season of Makers: Women Who Make America, in 2014. [101]

In 2015, Roberts appeared in Givenchy's spring–summer campaign, [102] [103] and starred as a grieving mother opposite Nicole Kidman and Chiwetel Ejiofor in the little-seen film Secret in Their Eyes, a remake of the 2009 Argentine film of the same name, both based on the novel La pregunta de sus ojos by author Eduardo Sacheri. [104]

In 2016, she reunited with Garry Marshall again to appear as an accomplished author who gave her child for adoption in the romantic comedy Mother's Day, opposite Jennifer Aniston, Kate Hudson, Jason Sudeikis, and Timothy Olyphant. The film received "overwhelmingly negative reviews", but budgeted at $25 million, was a moderate box office success, grossing $48.5 million. [105] She also starred as a television director in the thriller Money Monster, directed by Jodie Foster and alongside George Clooney and Jack O'Connell. [106] [107] [108]

In Wonder (2017), the film adaptation of the 2012 novel of the same name by R. J. Palacio, Roberts played the mother of a boy with Treacher Collins syndrome. [109] The Times felt Roberts "lifts every one of her scenes in Wonder to near-sublime places", [110] as part of a positive reception, [111] and with a worldwide gross of $305.9 million, Wonder emerged as one of Roberts' most widely seen films. [112] Roberts took on the role of a caseworker at a secret government facility in her first television series, Homecoming, which premiered on November 2, 2018 on Amazon Video. [113]

Relationships and marriages

Roberts had romantic relationships with actors Jason Patric, Liam Neeson, Kiefer Sutherland, Dylan McDermott, and Matthew Perry. [114] [115] She was briefly engaged to Sutherland they broke up three days before their scheduled wedding on June 11, 1991. [116] On June 25, 1993, she married country singer Lyle Lovett the wedding took place at St. James Lutheran Church in Marion, Indiana. [117] They separated in March 1995 and subsequently divorced. [118] From 1998 to 2001, Roberts dated actor Benjamin Bratt. [119]

Roberts and her husband, cameraman Daniel Moder, met on the set of her film The Mexican in 2000 while she was still dating Bratt. At the time, Moder was married to Vera Steimberg. He filed for divorce a little over a year later, and after it was finalized, he and Roberts wed on July 4, 2002, [120] at her ranch in Taos, New Mexico. [121] Together, they have three children: twins, a daughter and a son, born in November 2004, [122] and another son born in June 2007. [123]

Religious beliefs

In 2010, Roberts said she was Hindu. [124] Roberts is a devotee of the guru Neem Karoli Baba (Maharaj-ji), a picture of whom drew Roberts to Hinduism. [125]

In September 2009, Swami Daram Dev of Ashram Hari Mandir in Pataudi, where Roberts was shooting Eat Pray Love, gave her children new names after Hindu gods: Laxmi for Hazel, Ganesh for Phinnaeus and Krishna Balram for Henry. [126]


Roberts has given her time and resources to UNICEF as well as to other charitable organizations. On May 10, 1995, Roberts arrived in Port-au-Prince, as she said, "to educate myself." [127] [128] The poverty she found was overwhelming. "My heart is just bursting," she said. [127] UNICEF officials hoped that her six-day visit would trigger an outburst of giving: $10 million in aid was sought at the time. [127] [128]

In 2000, Roberts narrated Silent Angels, a documentary about Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder. [129] The documentary was designed to help raise public awareness about the disease. In July 2006, Roberts became a spokeswoman for Earth Biofuels, as well as chair of the company's newly formed Advisory Board promoting the use of renewable fuels. [130] She supported Gucci's "Chime For Change" campaign that aims to spread female empowerment. [131]

Roberts was the voice of Mother Nature in a 2014 short film for Conservation International, intended to raise awareness about climate change. [132]

Film production company

Roberts runs the production company Red Om Films (Red Om is "Moder" spelled backwards, after her husband's last name [133] ) with her sister, Lisa Roberts Gillan, and Marisa Yeres Gill. [134] Through Red Om, Roberts served as an executive producer of the first four films of the American Girl film series (based on the American Girl line of dolls), released between 2004 and 2008. [135]

Julia Luckenbach Str - History

The list of ships below includes ships for which information can be found in the timetables/sailing lists or other publications shown on this website. (This is a mandatory criterion. No other ships are listed, including those which are only mentioned in the archives or shipping in 1971 sections.)

The link for each ship will transfer you to a shipping company page, where there is at least one publication which mentions the ship. (Occasionally, the ship may instead be found on yet another link from the shipping company page.) If the same name has been used by more than one ship, the name is listed only once, if the ships belonged to the same company.

See the lists of exterior views and interior views for direct links to pages with views of some of the ships featured on this website.

Å, see A
Ä see A
Ö, see O

You may use my images on another website.
Then please credit them as being from the collection of Björn Larsson,
and preferably provide a link to my Introduction page.
Please also respect the copyright provisions as given below.
Thank you!

Julia Luckenbach Str - History

A number of existing troopships, as well as ships seized from Germany, were used to return troops from Europe to the United States after the Armistice. In addition, there were several foreign-flagged ships used only for troop returns.

Up until November 11, 1918, all efforts were made to send troops to Europe. Once hostilities ceased, the United States faced a huge logistical problem of returning the troops home again.

I have a copy of a book entitled A History of the Transport Service by Vice Admiral Albert Gleaves, U.S.N. It was published in 1921 and describes the incredible effort needed to transport millions of American troops both over to France and back home again. Several tables and illustrations from the book are available from my website, by following the links on this page. This information may help if you are looking for a particular ship or wish to see the statistics behind this major war effort.

Note that the Gleaves book's contents are available online: Online copy of A History of the Transport Service by Vice Admiral Albert Gleaves, U.S.N. You can download your own copy and learn more about this fascinating history, and the ships and men that were part of it.

Foreign Troopships Used for Returning Personnel

The following ships of foreign origin were used to return United States troops after the Armistice. Each line is formatted thus: NAME of SHIP (Nationality).


Lake Baikal is in a rift valley, created by the Baikal Rift Zone, where the Earth's crust is slowly pulling apart. [18] At 636 km (395 mi) long and 79 km (49 mi) wide, Lake Baikal has the largest surface area of any freshwater lake in Asia, at 31,722 km 2 (12,248 sq mi), and is the deepest lake in the world at 1,642 m (5,387 ft). The bottom of the lake is 1,186.5 m (3,893 ft) below sea level, but below this lies some 7 km (4.3 mi) of sediment, placing the rift floor some 8–11 km (5.0–6.8 mi) below the surface, the deepest continental rift on Earth. [18] In geological terms, the rift is young and active – it widens about 2 cm (0.8 in) per year. The fault zone is also seismically active hot springs occur in the area and notable earthquakes happen every few years. The lake is divided into three basins: North, Central, and South, with depths about 900 m (3,000 ft), 1,600 m (5,200 ft), and 1,400 m (4,600 ft), respectively. Fault-controlled accommodation zones rising to depths about 300 m (980 ft) separate the basins. The North and Central basins are separated by Academician Ridge, while the area around the Selenga Delta and the Buguldeika Saddle separates the Central and South basins. The lake drains into the Angara, a tributary of the Yenisey. Notable landforms include Cape Ryty on Baikal's northwest coast.

Baikal's age is estimated at 25–30 million years, making it the most ancient lake in geological history. [11] [12] It is unique among large, high-latitude lakes, as its sediments have not been scoured by overriding continental ice sheets. Russian, U.S., and Japanese cooperative studies of deep-drilling core sediments in the 1990s provide a detailed record of climatic variation over the past 6.7 million years. [19] [20] Longer and deeper sediment cores are expected in the near future. Lake Baikal is the only confined freshwater lake in which direct and indirect evidence of gas hydrates exists. [21] [22] [23]

The lake is surrounded by mountains the Baikal Mountains on the north shore, the Barguzin Range on the northeastern shore, and the taiga are protected as a national park. It contains 27 islands the largest, Olkhon, is 72 km (45 mi) long and is the third-largest lake-bound island in the world. The lake is fed by as many as 330 inflowing rivers. [24] The main ones draining directly into Baikal are the Selenga, the Barguzin, the Upper Angara, the Turka, the Sarma, and the Snezhnaya. It is drained through a single outlet, the Angara.

Regular winds exist in Baikal's rift valley. [25] The Kultuk blows southwest and the Verkhovik blows north or northeast. Together, these winds cause waves as high as 6 meters. In addition, transverse winds blow locally and over shorter distances. The Sarma (named after the Sarma River) blows northwest in the autumn through the Sarma valley and the strait of Olkhon Island. The Barguzin (named after the Barguzin river) blows northeast in the spring.

The river Turka at its mouth before joining Lake Baikal

Water characteristics Edit

Baikal is one of the clearest lakes in the world. [9] During the winter, the water transparency in open sections can be as much as 30–40 m (100–130 ft), but during the summer it is typically 5–8 m (15–25 ft). [26] Baikal is rich in oxygen, even in deep sections, [26] which separates it from distinctly stratified bodies of water such as Lake Tanganyika and the Black Sea. [27] [28]

In Lake Baikal, the water temperature varies significantly depending on location, depth, and time of the year. During the winter and spring, the surface freezes for about 4–5 months from early January to early May–June (latest in the north), the lake surface is covered in ice. [29] On average, the ice reaches a thickness of 0.5 to 1.4 m (1.6–4.6 ft), [30] but in some places with hummocks, it can be more than 2 m (6.6 ft). [29] During this period, the temperature slowly increases with depth in the lake, being coldest near the ice-covered surface at around freezing, and reaching about 3.5–3.8 °C (38.3–38.8 °F) at a depth of 200–250 m (660–820 ft). [31] After the surface ice breaks up, the surface water is slowly warmed up by the sun, and in May–June, the upper 300 m (980 ft) or so becomes homothermic (same temperature throughout) at around 4 °C (39 °F) because of water mixing. [26] [31] The sun continues to heat up the surface layer, and at the peak in August can reach up to about 16 °C (61 °F) in the main sections [31] and 20–24 °C (68–75 °F) in shallow bays in the southern half of the lake. [26] [32] During this time, the pattern is inverted compared to the winter and spring, as the water temperature falls with increasing depth. As the autumn begins, the surface temperature falls again and a second homothermic period at around 4 °C (39 °F) of the upper circa 300 m (980 ft) occurs in October–November. [26] [31] In the deepest parts of the lake, from about 300 m (980 ft), the temperature is stable at 3.1–3.4 °C (37.6–38.1 °F) with only minor annual variations. [31]

The average surface temperature has risen by almost 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) in the last 50 years, resulting in a shorter period where the lake is covered by ice. [12] At some locations, hydrothermal vents with water that is about 50 °C (122 °F) have been found. These are mostly in deep water but locally have also been found in relatively shallow water. They have little effect on the lake's temperature because of its huge volume. [31]

Stormy weather on the lake is common, especially during the summer and fall, and can result in waves as high as 4.5 m (15 ft). [26]

Lake Baikal as seen from the OrbView-2 satellite

Spring ice melt underway on Lake Baikal, on 4 May: Notice the ice-covered north, while much of the south is already ice-free.

Circle of thin ice, diameter of 4.4 km (2.7 mi) at the lake's southern tip, probably caused by convection

Delta of the Selenga River, Baikal's main tributary

Lake Baikal is rich in biodiversity. It hosts more than 1,000 species of plants and 2,500 species of animals based on current knowledge, but the actual figures for both groups are believed to be significantly higher. [26] [33] More than 80% of the animals are endemic. [33]

Flora Edit

The watershed of Lake Baikal has numerous floral species represented. The marsh thistle (Cirsium palustre) is found here at the eastern limit of its geographic range. [34]

Submerged macrophytic vascular plants are mostly absent, except in some shallow bays along the shores of Lake Baikal. [35] More than 85 species of submerged macrophytes have been recorded, including genera such as Ceratophyllum, Myriophyllum, Potamogeton, and Sparganium. [32] The invasive species Elodea canadensis was introduced to the lake in the 1950s. [35] Instead of vascular plants, aquatic flora is often dominated by several green algae species, notably Draparnaldioides, Tetraspora, and Ulothrix in water shallower than 20 m (65 ft) although Aegagrophila, Cladophora, and Draparnaldioides may occur deeper than 30 m (100 ft). [35] Except for Ulothrix, there are endemic Baikal species in all these green algae genera. [35] More than 400 diatom species, both benthic and planktonic, are found in the lake, and about half of these are endemic to Baikal however, significant taxonomic uncertainties remain for this group. [35]

Mammals Edit

The Baikal seal or nerpa (Pusa sibirica) is found throughout Lake Baikal. [36] It is one of only three entirely freshwater seal populations in the world, the other two being subspecies of ringed seals.

A wide range of land mammals can be found in the habitats around the lake, such as Eurasian brown bear, Eurasian wolf, red fox, sable, stoat, elk, Siberian red deer, reindeer, Siberian roe deer, Siberian musk deer, wild boar, red squirrel, Siberian chipmunk, marmot, lemming, and Alpine hare. [37] Until the Early Middle Ages, the wisent (European bison) was present near the lake, which was the easternmost part of its range. [38]

Birds Edit

There are 236 species of birds that inhabit Lake Baikal, 29 of which are waterfowl. [39] Although named after the lake, both the Baikal teal and Baikal bush warbler are widespread in eastern Asia. [40] [41]

Fish Edit

Fewer than 65 native fish species occur in the lake basin, but more than half of these are endemic. [26] [44] The families Abyssocottidae (deep-water sculpins), Comephoridae (golomyankas or Baikal oilfish), and Cottocomephoridae (Baikal sculpins) are entirely restricted to the lake basin. [26] [45] All these are part of the Cottoidea and are typically less than 20 cm (8 in) long. [35] Of particular note are the two species of golomyanka (Comephorus baicalensis and C. dybowskii). These long-finned, translucent fish typically live in open water at depths of 100–500 m (330–1,640 ft), but occur both shallower and much deeper. Together with certain abyssocottid sculpins, they are the deepest living freshwater fish in the world, occurring to near the bottom of Lake Baikal. [46] The golomyankas are the primary prey of the Baikal seal and represent the largest fish biomass in the lake. [47] Beyond members of Cottoidea, there are few endemic fish species in the lake basin. [26] [44]

The most important local species for fisheries is the omul (Coregonus migratorius), an endemic whitefish. [26] It is caught, smoked, and then sold widely in markets around the lake. Also, a second endemic whitefish inhabits the lake, C. baicalensis. [48] The Baikal black grayling (Thymallus baicalensis), Baikal white grayling (T. brevipinnis), and Baikal sturgeon (Acipenser baerii baicalensis) are other important species with commercial value. They are also endemic to the Lake Baikal basin. [42] [43] [49] [50]

Invertebrates Edit

The lake hosts a rich endemic fauna of invertebrates. The copepod Epischura baikalensis is endemic to Lake Baikal and the dominating zooplankton species there, making up 80 to 90% of total biomass. [51] It is estimated that the epischurans filter as much as a thousand cubic kilometers of water a year, or the lake's entire volume every twenty-three years. [52]

Among the most diverse invertebrate groups are the amphipod and ostracod crustaceans, freshwater snails, annelid worms and turbellarian worms:

Amphipod and ostracod crustaceans Edit

More than 350 species and subspecies of amphipods are endemic to the lake. [33] They are exceptionally diverse in ecology and appearance, ranging from the pelagic Macrohectopus to the relatively large deep-water Abyssogammarus and Garjajewia, the tiny herbivorous Micruropus, and the parasitic Pachyschesis (parasitic on other amphipods). [53] The "gigantism" of some Baikal amphipods, which has been compared to that seen in Antarctic amphipods, has been linked to the high level of dissolved oxygen in the lake. [54] Among the "giants" are several species of spiny Acanthogammarus and Brachyuropus (Acanthogammaridae) found at both shallow and deep depths. [55] These conspicuous and common amphipods are essentially carnivores (will also take detritus), and can reach a body length up to 7 cm (2.8 in). [53] [55]

Similar to another ancient lake, Tanganyika, Baikal is a center for ostracod diversity. About 90% of the Lake Baikal ostracods are endemic, [56] meaning that there are c. 200 endemic species. [57] This makes it the second-most diverse group of crustacean in the lake, after the amphipods. [56] The vast majority of the Baikal ostracods belong in the families Candonidae (more than 100 described species) and Cytherideidae (about 50 described species), [56] [58] but genetic studies indicate that the true diversity in at least the latter family has been heavily underestimated. [59] The morphology of the Baikal ostracods is highly diverse. [56]

Snails and bivalves Edit

As of 2006 [update] , almost 150 freshwater snails are known from Lake Baikal, including 117 endemic species from the subfamilies Baicaliinae (part of the Amnicolidae) and Benedictiinae (part of the Lithoglyphidae), and the families Planorbidae and Valvatidae. [60] All endemics have been recorded between 20 and 30 m (66 and 98 ft), but the majority mainly live at shallower depths. [60] About 30 freshwater snail species can be seen deeper than 100 m (330 ft), which represents the approximate limit of the sunlight zone, but only 10 are truly deepwater species. [60] In general, Baikal snails are thin-shelled and small. Two of the most common species are Benedictia baicalensis and Megalovalvata baicalensis. [61] Bivalve diversity is lower with more than 30 species about half of these, all in the families Euglesidae, Pisidiidae, and Sphaeriidae, are endemic (the only other family in the lake is the Unionidae with a single nonendemic species). [61] [62] The endemic bivalves are mainly found in shallows, with few species from deep water. [63]

Aquatic worms Edit

With almost 200 described species, including more than 160 endemics, the center of diversity for aquatic freshwater oligochaetes is Lake Baikal. [64] A smaller number of other freshwater annelids is known: 30 species of leeches (Hirudinea), [65] and 4 polychaetes. [64] Several hundred species of nematodes are known from the lake, but a large percentage of these are undescribed. [64]

More than 140 endemic flatworm (Plathelminthes) species are in Lake Baikal, where they occur on a wide range of bottom types. [66] Most of the flatworms are predatory, and some are relatively brightly marked. They are often abundant in shallow waters, where they are typically less than 2 cm (1 in) long, but in deeper parts of the lake, the largest, Baikaloplana valida, can reach up to 30 cm (1 ft) when outstretched. [35] [66]

Sponges Edit

At least 18 species of sponges occur in the lake, [67] including 14 species from the endemic family Lubomirskiidae (the remaining are from the nonendemic family Spongillidae). [68] In the nearshore regions of Baikal, the largest benthic biomass is sponges. [67] Lubomirskia baicalensis, Baikalospongia bacillifera, and B. intermedia are unusually large for freshwater sponges and can reach 1 m (3.3 ft) or more. [67] [69] These three are also the most common sponges in the lake. [67] While the Baikalospongia species typically have encrusting or carpet-like structures, L. baikalensis often has branching structures and in areas where common may form underwater "forests". [70] Most sponges in the lake are typically green when alive because of symbiotic chlorophytes (zoochlorella), but can also be brownish or yellowish. [71]

The Baikal area, sometimes known as Baikalia, has a long history of human habitation. Near the village of Mal'ta, some 160 km northwest of the lake, remains of a young human male known as MA-1 or "Mal'ta Boy" are indications of local habitation by the Mal'ta–Buret' culture ca. 24,000 BP. An early known tribe in the area was the Kurykans. [72]

Located in the former northern territory of the Xiongnu confederation, Lake Baikal is one site of the Han–Xiongnu War, where the armies of the Han dynasty pursued and defeated the Xiongnu forces from the second century BC to the first century AD. They recorded that the lake was a "huge sea" (hanhai) and designated it the North Sea (Běihǎi) of the semimythical Four Seas. [73] The Kurykans, a Siberian tribe who inhabited the area in the sixth century, gave it a name that translates to "much water". Later on, it was called "natural lake" (Baygal nuur) by the Buryats and "rich lake" (Bay göl) by the Yakuts. [74] Little was known to Europeans about the lake until Russia expanded into the area in the 17th century. The first Russian explorer to reach Lake Baikal was Kurbat Ivanov in 1643. [75]

Russian expansion into the Buryat area around Lake Baikal [76] in 1628–58 was part of the Russian conquest of Siberia. It was done first by following the Angara River upstream from Yeniseysk (founded 1619) and later by moving south from the Lena River. Russians first heard of the Buryats in 1609 at Tomsk. According to folktales related a century after the fact, in 1623, Demid Pyanda, who may have been the first Russian to reach the Lena, crossed from the upper Lena to the Angara and arrived at Yeniseysk. [77]

Vikhor Savin (1624) and Maksim Perfilyev (1626 and 1627–28) explored Tungus country on the lower Angara. To the west, Krasnoyarsk on the upper Yenisei was founded in 1627. A number of ill-documented expeditions explored eastward from Krasnoyarsk. In 1628, Pyotr Beketov first encountered a group of Buryats and collected yasak (tribute) from them at the future site of Bratsk. In 1629, Yakov Khripunov set off from Tomsk to find a rumored silver mine. His men soon began plundering both Russians and natives. They were joined by another band of rioters from Krasnoyarsk, but left the Buryat country when they ran short of food. This made it difficult for other Russians to enter the area. In 1631, Maksim Perfilyev built an ostrog at Bratsk. The pacification was moderately successful, but in 1634, Bratsk was destroyed and its garrison killed. In 1635, Bratsk was restored by a punitive expedition under Radukovskii. In 1638, it was besieged unsuccessfully. [ citation needed ]

In 1638, Perfilyev crossed from the Angara over the Ilim portage to the Lena River and went downstream as far as Olyokminsk. Returning, he sailed up the Vitim River into the area east of Lake Baikal (1640) where he heard reports of the Amur country. In 1641, Verkholensk was founded on the upper Lena. In 1643, Kurbat Ivanov went further up the Lena and became the first Russian to see Lake Baikal and Olkhon Island. Half his party under Skorokhodov remained on the lake, reached the Upper Angara at its northern tip, and wintered on the Barguzin River on the northeast side. [ citation needed ]

In 1644, Ivan Pokhabov went up the Angara to Baikal, becoming perhaps the first Russian to use this route, which is difficult because of the rapids. He crossed the lake and explored the lower Selenge River. About 1647, he repeated the trip, obtained guides, and visited a 'Tsetsen Khan' near Ulan Bator. In 1648, Ivan Galkin built an ostrog on the Barguzin River which became a center for eastward expansion. In 1652, Vasily Kolesnikov reported from Barguzin that one could reach the Amur country by following the Selenga, Uda, and Khilok Rivers to the future sites of Chita and Nerchinsk. In 1653, Pyotr Beketov took Kolesnikov's route to Lake Irgen west of Chita, and that winter his man Urasov founded Nerchinsk. Next spring, he tried to occupy Nerchensk, but was forced by his men to join Stephanov on the Amur. Nerchinsk was destroyed by the local Tungus, but restored in 1658. [ citation needed ]

The Trans-Siberian Railway was built between 1896 and 1902. Construction of the scenic railway around the southwestern end of Lake Baikal required 200 bridges and 33 tunnels. Until its completion, a train ferry transported railcars across the lake from Port Baikal to Mysovaya for a number of years. The lake became the site of the minor engagement between the Czechoslovak legion and the Red Army in 1918. At times during winter freezes, the lake could be crossed on foot, though at risk of frostbite and deadly hypothermia from the cold wind moving unobstructed across flat expanses of ice. In the winter of 1920, the Great Siberian Ice March occurred, when the retreating White Russian Army crossed frozen Lake Baikal. The wind on the exposed lake was so cold, many people died, freezing in place until spring thaw. Beginning in 1956, the impounding of the Irkutsk Dam on the Angara River raised the level of the lake by 1.4 m (4.6 ft). [78]

Return to Film

Returning to American cinemas in 2009 with Duplicity, Roberts reunited with her Closer co-star Owen. She explained her two-year absence from the American movie scene to People magazine, saying, "I don&apost have the bug to work. I have the bug to make good movies, and those don&apost come along very often." While the film was not a huge hit, critics heralded Roberts&aposs return. "It is an undeniable thrill to see her again," wrote Lisa Schwarzbaum in Entertainment Weekly.

In addition to acting, Roberts has worked behind the scenes. She served as an executive producer on the short-lived TV series Queens Supreme (2003) and on TV adaptations of the American Girl stories, including 2008&aposs Kit Kittredge: An American Girl, starringꂫigail Breslinਊs the title character.

Julia Luckenbach Str - History


Please note that ships often changed hands and names many times. If an entry is just the name of the vessel followed by a "see. " then that vessel was renamed and you will find the full history under the redirected name.

The W.A.SCHOLTEN was a 2,529 gross ton ship, length 351ft x beam 38.2ft, clipperstem, one funnel, three masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. There was accommodation for 50-1st and 600-3rd class passengers. Built by Robert Napier & Sons, Glasgow, she was launched for the Holland America Line on 16th Feb.1874. Her maiden voyage started on 16th May 1874 when she left Rotterdam for Plymouth and New York. She continued this service until starting her last voyage when she sailed from Rotterdam on 18th Nov.1887. The following day she was sunk in collision with the British ship ROSA MARY in the English Channel with the loss of 132 lives. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.909]

The WAESLAND was a 4,752 gross ton ship, built by J&G.Thomson, Glasgow in 1867. Her details were - length 435.1ft x beam 41.9ft, clipper stem, one funnel, four masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 14 knots. There was accommodation for 120-1st and 1,500-3rd class passengers. Launched on 20/3/1867 as the RUSSIA for the Cunard Line, she was purchased by the Red Star Line of Antwerp in 1880, lengthened from 358ft to 435.1ft, fitted with compound engines by the builders, and renamed WAESLAND. On 6/12/1880 she commenced her first voyage for these owners, when she sailed from Antwerp for New York. In 1889 she was fitted with triple-expansion engines by the builders and on 17/8/1895 started her last Antwerp - New York voyage. On 11/9/1895 she started Philadelphia - Liverpool crossings under charter to the American Line, with accommodation for 120-2nd and 1,500-3rd class passengers. She was sunk in collision with the British ship HARMONIDES off Anglesey on 5th March 1902 with the loss of 2 lives. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.852]

5,610 gross tons, length 420ft x beam 54ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 15 knots. Accommodation for 26-1st and 250-emigrant class passengers. Built by Hawthorn Leslie & Co, Newcastle, she entered service for the New Zealand Shipping Co. in Sep.1896 on the London - New Zealand service via Capetown. Used for carrying NZ troops to South Africa during the Boer War in 1899 and scrapped in 1925. [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.7, New Zealand Shipping Co]

1,057 gross tons, length 204.1ft x beam 34.2ft, iron hull, three masted, full rigged ship, accommodation for 300-emigrant class passengers. Built by Palmer's Co., Newcastle, she was delivered to New Zealand Shipping Co. in Oct.1875 and made nearly 20 voyages to New Zealand for the company, the fastest being in 1875 to Port Chalmers when she accomplished a land to land time of 82 days.

An interesting excerpt from the Otago Daily Times of Nov.1st 1879 states "The good ship WAIPA comes into port a pattern of neatness and good order, and reflects the greatest credit on the commander (the genial Capt. Gorn) and his indefatigable Chief Officer, Mr J. Baxter. She brings 1,500 tons of cargo and also 1,000 birds, the survivors of 1,600 collected by their owner in various parts of Europe. He informs us that out of 120 insectivorous birds, only 12 survived, of these two are nightingales and the remainder robins. The WAIPA also brings a cow. This docile creature is in full milk and has been duly appreciated by the passengers"
The testimony of the journal of the surgeon-superintendent C. H. Gibson made after the voyage to Wellington in 1876 summarises - "The general arrangement of the New Zealand Shipping Co. in my opinion (after over 5 years at sea as surgeon) contrasts most favourably with those of other companies"
In 1894 the WAIPA was sold to Brodrene Bjornstad, Norway, resold in 1895 to H. Hansen, Lillesand and renamed MUNTER and re-rigged as a barque. In Dec.1911 she went missing at sea. [Sea Breezes Magazine, Feb.1969] [Merchant Fleets, vol.7 by Duncan Haws]
Photos at http://www.pictureaustralia.org/servlet/pa as the WAIPA and as the MUNTER. Type in WAIPA and click on the photos to enlarge. Photo also available from Alexander Turnbull Library http://www.natlib.govt.nz/en/using/2atl.html

WAIROA 1057 gross tons, length 204.1ft x beam 34.2ft (62.21m x 10.42m), three masted, full rigged ship, iron hull and accommodation for 300 emigrant passengers. Built in 1875 by Palmers, Newcastle for the New Zealand Shipping Co, she was delivered in Nov.1875. In 1884, en route for Wellington, her master Captain Mathers had been complaining of illness for some time and when nearing her destination, leapt overboard. He was rescued, but was dead when taken from the water. The ship was sold to Zernichow & Gotaas, Norway in 1895 and renamed WINNIPEG, then sold to J.H.Alsten, Nystad. She was lost en route Pensacola - Buenos Aires with a cargo of lumber in Dec.1907. [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.7, NZSCo]

The WAITANGI was built in 1873 by J.Blumer & Co, Sunderland for the New Zealand Shipping Co. She was a 1,161 gross ton sailing vessel, and was a three masted full rigged ship. Length 222ft x beam 35.1ft (67,66m x 10,70m), iron construction and accommodation for 350 emigrants. Launched in Nov.1873, she started UK - New Zealand voyages in Jan.1874 and made 25 voyages for the company before she was sold to J.Wagle, Arendal, Norway in 1899. Renamed AGDA she was lost at sea in 1913. [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.7, New Zealand Shipping and Federal S.N.Co]

The WALDENSIAN was built by Barclay & Curle, Glasgow in 1861 for the Allan Line. She was a 1,432 gross ton ship, length 253ft x beam 33.9ft, clipper stem, one funnel, three masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. There was accommodation for 30-1st and 350-3rd class passengers. Launched on 8th Aug.1861 as the ST. ANDREW, she started her maiden voyage on 28th Sep.1861 when she left Glasgow for Quebec and Montreal. She started her last sailing on this service on 23rd Oct.1872, and in 1873 was rebuilt to 2,256 tons, lengthened to 322.5ft, re-engined and renamed WALDENSIAN. Her first Glasgow - Portland voyage started 22nd Jan.1874 and on 12th Feb.1880 she commenced her first Glasgow - Halifax - Boston voyage. Fitted with triple expansion engines in 1888, she started her last North Atlantic voyage on 16th Apr.1891 between Glasgow, Halifax and Philadelphia. She subsequently ran on the South American service and started her final voyage on 22nd Nov.1902 between Glasgow, Montevideo and Buenos Aires. She was scrapped at Genoa in 1903. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.309-310]

2,446 gross tons, length 327.8ft x beam 36.4ft, one funnel, two masts (rigged for sail), single screw, speed 10 knots, accommodation for 1st and 3rd class passengers. Completed Apr.1872 by Barclay, Curle & Co., Glasgow for the Castle Line, she initially sailed on the London - Calcutta - China service and arrived at Cape Town on Oct.4th. In 1876 she was transferred to Castle Mail Steam Packet Co., Ltd, the privately owned company still managed by Donald Currie. 1879 placed on the intermediate service as an extra steamer after a spell on the Cape Town Mail run. In 1880 she was renamed VALENCIA, owned by the Marques de Campo, Cadiz who held the mail contract between Cadiz and the Philippines, VALENCIA was placed on that service which was operated by Compania General de Tabacos de Filipinas. In 1884 the four Tabacos steamers were taken over by Cia. Trasatlantica Espanoles when that company obtained the mail contract and she remained on the Philippines route. 1888 purchased by T. Cuthbertson, West Hartlepool for the China trade and renamed GAW QUAN SIA. 16th Dec.1889 on voyage Singapore - Calcutta - Hamburg - London with general cargo she collided with the Holland America Line ship LEERDAM (2,796 tons, built 1881) while 23 miles NE x N of Noord Hinder Lightship, Belgian coast. Both ships sank with loss of two lives on GAW QUAN SIA. [Merchant Fleets, vol.18 by Duncan Haws]

7,785 gross tons, length 411.3ft x beam 34.1ft, one funnel, two masts, tein screw, speed 16 knots, accommodation for 231-1st, 120-2nd and 72-3rd class passengers. Built 1912 by Beardmore & Co, Glasgow as the WANDILLA for the Adelaide SS Co., Australia, she was converted to a hospital ship in 1914. Returned to her owners in 1918, the extension of Australian railways had made her surplus to requirements and in 1921 she was purchased by Bermuda & West Indies SS Co. and renamed FORT ST. GEORGE. Her cargo holds were replaced by water tanks to supply fresh water to hotels in Bermuda, as there was no natural water supply on the island. Fitted with accommodation for 380-1st and 50-2nd class passengers. In 1924 she collided with White Star Line's OLYMPIC and was out of service for repairs. 1935 sold to Lloyd Triestino, Trieste renamed CESAREA. 1938 renamed ARNO for same owners. In 1940 she was converted to a military hospital ship and on 10th Sep.1942 was sunk by British air attack off Tobruk. [Merchant Fleets, vol.37 by Duncan Haws]

The WANDRAHM was a 2,578 gross ton ship, length 95,97m x beam 11,89m (314.9ft x 39ft), one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. There was accommodation for 10-1st and 550-3rd class passengers. Built by J.C.Tecklenborg, Geestemunde, she was launched for the Hansa Line on 1st Nov.1890. Her maiden voyage started on 1st Mar.1891 when she sailed from Hamburg for New York and her first Hamburg - Quebec - Montreal sailing started on 15th Jul.1891. In March 1892 she was purchased by Hamburg America Line and commenced her first Hamburg - Antwerp - Montreal voyage on 30th Apr.1892. Renamed HISPANIA in 1894 she started her first Hamburg - Montreal voyage under this name on 13th Oct.1894. Her subsequent voyages from Hamburg were mostly to New York, Montreal, Philadelphia or Baltimore. On 26th Mar.1898 she commenced her first sailing between Stettin and New York and started her eighth and last sailing on this service on 29th Oct.1900. Her last voyage started on 22nd Feb.1910 when she sailed from Hamburg for Boston and she was then sold to Emil Retzlaff, Stettin. In 1914 she was renamed KRETA and in 1915 became the TEBEA. Damaged by a severe explosion at Antwerp in 1917 and in 1919 surrendered to the Allies and was ceded to Belgium. Sold to F. Reinhold, Danzig in 1922 and renamed BOSPORUS, she was again sold in 1925 to Turkish owners and named NEDJAT. The spelling was changed in 1929 to NECAT and she again changed hands in 1964 when she became the Turkish owned CELIKKALE. She was finally scrapped in Turkey in 1966.
[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.398]


The TACOMA STAR was a 7924 gross ton ship, length 465ft x beam 58.5ft and was a WWI standard built ship. Built in 1919 by Workman Clark & Co, Belfast as the WAR THESEUS for the Shipping Controller, she was purchased by British India SN Co and completed as the WANGARETTA. Sold to Blue Star Line in 1929, she was renamed TACOMA STAR and used on the UK - North Pacific west coast ports service. In 1933 transferred to Union Cold Storage ownership, 1935 transferred to Frederick Leyland & Co. On 4th May 1941 she sank in dock at Liverpool as the result of an air raid and was salvaged. On 1st Feb.1942 at 03.30 hours she was torpedoed by the U.109 while 380 miles short of Hampton Roads where she was to have joined a UK bound convoy. Apart from a distress signal, no other trace of the ship was found and she sank with the loss of 94 lives. [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, Blue Star Line]

Owned by William Lund's Blue Anchor Line, she was a 9,339 gross ton ship, built in 1908 by Barclay, Curle & Co, Glasgow. Her dimensions were length 465ft x beam 59.4ft and she had one funnel, two masts, a speed of 14 knots and accommodation for 128-1st, 300-3rd and 400-emigrant class passengers. She left London on 5th.Nov.1908 on her maiden voyage to Cape Town, Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney under Captain J.F.Ilbery, and she called at Durban and Cape Town homeward bound. The next outward voyage passed without incident, and on 1st July 1909 she left Melbourne and arrived at Durban on 25th July and left the next day with 92 passengers and 119 crew. One the morning of 27th the ship ran into a full gale and at 6am exchanged greetings with the CLAN MACINTYRE which she was overtaking. The two ships were in sight of each other for about three hours but that was the last sighting of the WARATAH. She was due at Cape Town on the morning of 29th, and on the 31st the tug T.E.FULLER was sent out to look for her, thought to be broken down. Later another tug and three warships joined the search but without success. In August, the Australian Government and underwriters chartered the Union Castle ship SABINE to search as far south as the Crozet and St.Paul Islands between Sep.11th and Dec.7th but nothing was found. From Feb. to June 1910, the steamer WAKEFIELD was sent on another fruitless search before hope was finally abandoned. The loss of Lund's latest and finest ship caused the board to sell the company and fleet to P&O Line in Jan.1910. The court of enquiry found that the ship probably capsized in bad weather, but commented on the question of stability of the ship.

The WAROONGA was a 2,503 gross ton ship, length 96,26m x beam 11,64m, one funnel, two masts, single screw and accommodation for 37-1st and 16-2nd class passengers. Built by A&J. Inglis, Glasgow in 1883 for British India Associated Steamers, she started her maiden voyage from London via Suez to Batavia and Brisbane on 26th Mar.1883. In 1890 she was transferred to the Australasian United Steam Nav. Co and in 1899 was purchased by British India SN Co. Sold to T. Yoshida, Japan in 1913 and resold to Kishimoto Kisen K.K. the following year and renamed BANSEI MARU. Scrapped in Japan in 1926. [North Star to Southern Cross by John M.Maber] [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.11, British India SN Co]

WARTURM 4,965 gross tons, length 400.9ft x beam 52.7ft, completed 1908 by J. C. Tecklenborg, Geestemunde for Deutsche Dampfschifffahrts-Gesellschaft "Hansa", Bremen (Hansa Line). Aug.1914 seized by Britain at Bombay. Requisitioned by the Brirish Government and placed under the management of Grahams & Co. 1920 Transferred to the Secretary of State for India in Council (Director, India Office Shipping, manager). 1922 sold to Turnbull Scott Shipping Co Ltd (Turnbull, Scott & Co, managers) (British) and renamed NETHERGATE. Nov.1932 sold to Metal Industries Ltd and scrapped at Rosyth. [85 Years of Shipping under the Maltese Cross by L. Gray]

WARWICK 1882 (O.N.85805)
2,527 gross ton steamship, length 316ft x beam 41.2ft, clipper bows, one funnel, three masts, single screw, speed 12 knots, accommodation for 20-1st, 30-2nd and 380-3rd class passengers.
Launched 17th May 1882 by Wigham Richardson & Co., Walker-on-Tyne for the Great Western Steamship Line, Bristol, she sailed on her maiden voyage on 1st Jul.1882 from Bristol for New York. On 13th Jul.1884 she stranded at Fame Point, Gaspe Peninsular but was refloated and repaired. Her last Bristol - New York voyage started on 30th Jun.1887 and she started Swansea - New York sailings on 6th Dec.1887. In 1889 she was sold to Donaldson Line, Glasgow and from July 1889 was used on the Glasgow - Quebec - Montreal passenger service. In Dec.1896 she started her last voyage from Glasgow for St. John N.B and was wrecked in the Bay of Fundy. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.2 by N.R.P. Bonsor]

The CIUDAD CONDAL was built by T.R.Oswald & Co, Sunderland in 1873 as the WASHINGTON for the German owned company, Baltischer Lloyd. This was a 2,576 gross ton steamer, one funnel, two masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 12 knots. There was accommodation for 150-1st & 2nd class passengers and 700-3rd class. Launched in May 1873, she sailed on her maiden voyage from Stettin to Havre and New York on 31st July 1873. She commenced her fourth and last voyage on 28th May 1874 when she left Stettin for Copenhagen, Antwerp and New York. Sold to A.Lopez y Compania of Spain and renamed CIUDAD CONDAL in 1879, she came under the control of Compania Trasatlantica of Barcelona in 1881. I have no details of the sailings of this ship, except that she was used on the feeder service between Havana and New York for a while. She was scrapped at Genoa in 1906.
[North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.774]

The WASHINGTON was a 2,833 gross ton ship built in 1880 by A.Stephen & Sons, Glasgow for Florio & Co. of Palermo. Her details were length 352.1ft x beam 38.1ft, clipper stem, one funnel, three masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 12 knots. There was accommodation for 20-1st, 24-2nd and 500-3rd class passengers. Launched on 26th May 1880, she sailed on her maiden voyage from Palermo for New York on 19th August 1880. She started her last voyage on this service on 14th August 1881 (6 round voyages) and then the Navigazione Generale Italiana was formed by the amalgamation of Florio and Rubattino of Genoa. The WASHINGTON commenced saiiling for this new company on 13th Oct. 1881 when she sailed from Palermo for Messina and New York. She commenced her last voyage from Naples to New York on 27th May 1884 and was then transferred to the South America service. In 1885 she was used for transport services to Eritrea and in 1896 was rebuilt with triple expansion engines and her masts reduced to two. On 29th April 1901 she commenced sailings between Genoa, Naples and New York and on 20th July 1903 sailed from Genoa for New York on the last of 21 round voyages for NGI on the North Atlantic. On 28th March 1905 she was chartered to La Veloce of Genoa and commenced the first of two Genoa - New York sailings. In 1910 she went to Soc.Nazionale di Servizi Marittimi and in 1913 went to Sitmar Line. She was torpedoed and sunk on 23rd May 1916 by the German submarine U.39, off Piombino, Italy. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3,p.1111]

This ship was built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast in 1890, as the second MICHIGAN for the Atlantic Transport Line. She was a 3,722 gross ton ship, length 370.8ft x beam 44.2ft, straight stem, one funnel, four masts, steel construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. She was built primarily as a cargo ship with limited passenger accommodation. Launched on 19th April 1890, she commenced her first London - New York voyage on 15th Nov. 1891. She made seven round voyages on this service, the last commencing 8th Apri 1893 and subsequently sailed between London and Baltimore. In 1896 she went to the British owned National Line and started her first London - New York voyage for these owners on 22nd March 1896. She commenced her last sailing on this route on 27th June 1898 and was then bought by the US government for use as a Spanish-American war transport, rebuilt with two masts and renamed KILPATRICK. In 1920 she was sold to the American Black Sea Line, renamed ACROPOLIS, rebuilt to 5,083 tons, two funnels and fitted out with accommodation for 250-cabin and 600-3rd class passengers. She commenced her first voyage between New York, Piraeus and Constantinople on 14th April 1921 and her eighth and last on 7th Sept. 1922 when she sailed from New York for Piraeus, Constantinople, Patras and New York. In 1923 she was sold to the American owned Booras Steamship Co. who renamed her WASHINGTON. She commenced the first of two voyages on 1st May 1923 when she left New York for Piraeus and Constantinople, and the last on 7th July 1923 when she sailed from New York via Boston, for Piraeus, Constantinople (dep.6/8/1923) and New York (arr.30/8/1923). Later the same year she was sold to T.C.Phelps, New York who renamed her GREAT CANTON and scrapped her the following year in Italy. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3, p.1087, vol.4, p.1563]

WATERBURY VICTORY 7676 gross tons. Built 1945 by Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyard, Baltimore and used as a War Shipping Administration transport. 1947 sold to Holland (Vereenigde Nederlandsche Stoomvaaart), renamed MUIDERKERK. 1965 sold to Concord Navigation Corp, Keelung (Taiwan) renamed ANGELIA. Still listed in 1971-72 Lloyds Register. There is an excellent site with photos of "Victories" at http://www.americanvictory.org/History/history.htm

9,124 gross tons, length 138,77m x beam 18,93m, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 15 knots, accommodation for 860-single class passengers. Built by Oregon Shipbuilding Corp, Portland, Ore, as a standard World War II 'Victory' ship. Launched on 16th Jan.1945 as LA GRANDE VICTORY, she was used by the US War Shipping Administration as a troopship. Purchased by the Dutch Government in 1947, she was placed under the management of Rotterdam Lloyd and converted to an emigrant ship in 1951 and renamed WATERMAN. She transported emigrants to Australia, New Zealand and New York. Sold to John S.Latsis of Piraeus in Dec.1963, renamed MARGARITA, she was used for the tourist trade in the Eastern Mediterranean and was scrapped in Japan in 1970. [Victory Ships and Tankers by L.A.Sawyer and W.H.Mitchell]

The WAVERLEY was a 593 gross ton ship, length 222.2ft x beam 26.8ft, two funnels, two mastsm side paddle wheel propulsion and accommodation for 450-560 passengers. Built by A & J. Inglis, Glasgow, she was launched for the North British Steam Packet Co. on 16th May 1865. She made her maiden voyage from Glasgow to Dublin and Shilloth in July 1865 and on 10th July was put on the Dublin - Douglas - Shilloth service where cargo was unloaded to lighters and passengers by boat to Shilloth where they trained to Edinburgh. The ship was found to be too large for the route and in Aug.1868 she was sold to the London & South Western Railway Co and used on their Southampton - Channel Islands service. On 5th June 1873 she was wrecked in fog on Platte Boue Rock, Little Russel, Guernsey. [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.26, Britain's Railway Steamers]

O.N.118002 - 9,599 gross tons, 505ft x 58.3ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw, speed 14 knots. Built 1903 by Workman, Clark & Co., Belfast (Yard No.195) for T & J. Harrison, Liverpool. 20th Feb.1903 maiden voyage to New Orleans under Capt. D. A. Wood. From 12th May 1908 to 12th Sep.1908 she was laid up at Liverpool. Nov.1912 equipped with wireless communication system. 6th Jan.1913 sustained severe heavy weather damage on passage Liverpool to New Orleans - two lifeboats washed overboard and two badly damaged, ventilators crumpled and funnel lost overboard. 4th Jul.1914 sailed from Liverpool with the first refrigerating plant to be installed in a company vessel. 14th Jul.1914 sailed Cardiff for Rio de Janeiro with a cargo of coal, but intercepted by HMS GLASGOW near Rio on 5th Aug. and diverted to the Abrolhos Islands near Bahia as her coal cargo was required by the cruiser. 16th Mar.1915 requisitioned by the Shipping Controller for transport service. 11th Apr.1915 torpedoed and seriously damaged by German submarine U.32 while 60 miles WNW from Bishop Rock in position 50.15N 07.53W on voyage from Avonmouth. Oct.1916 took the largest ever cargo of cotton from Galveston to Liverpool. 17th Aug.1918 collided with auxiliary minesweeper VASCO DA GAMA in River Mersey and returned to dock for repairs.
5th Jan.1923 sold to Dollar Steamship Lines, Hong Kong (Robert Dollar & Co., San Francisco managers) renamed VIRGINIA DOLLAR. 11th Feb.1924 arrived at Honolulu in critical condition with split sheerstrakes. 1926 sold to Societa Anonima Italiana Prodotti Metallici, Genoa renamed ANGIOLINA R. 4th Jan.1927 arrived at Capetown after rough weather passage from Dakar having run out of coal and burnt much of her timber deck cargo to keep going. 1927 sold to S.A. Fonderie Piemontesi e Impresi Navi., Savona. 1928 sold to S.A. Commerciale Piemontese, Genoa renamed SUSA. 21st Apr.1929 aground off Bahia Blanca but refloated the next day. 28th May 1929 in collision with tanker BRITISH ENSIGN in the North Sea which was anchored about 50 miles west of Flushing causing serious damage to the tanker. 1932 scrapped at Genoa. [Harrisons of Liverpool by Graeme Cubbin ISBN 1-901703-48-7 contains photo of the ship]

The WEIMAR was a 4,996 gross ton ship, built for North German Lloyd of Bremen by Fairfield Co Ltd, Glasgow in 1891. Her details were - length 415ft x beam 48ft, one funnel, two masts, steel construction, single screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was accommodation for 49-1st, 38-2nd and 1,907-3rd class passengers. Launched on 9/2/1891, she started her maiden Bremen - Baltimore voyage on 21/5/1891. On 17/12/1891 she commenced her first Bremen - New York - Baltimore sailing and on 2/6/1897 started her first Bremen - Suez - Australia voyage. On 7/2/1900 she commenced the first of two round voyages between Bremen, Suez and the Far East and on 25/2/1903 started Naples - New York sailings. On 23/9/1905 she started on the Bremen - South America service. Her last Naples - New York voyage started 11/5/1906 (8 round voyages), last Bremen - Australia on 13/6/1906 (9 round voyages), and last Bremen - Baltimore on 11/5/1907 (57 round voyages on the North Atlantic). In 1908 she was sold to the Italian owned Lloyd del Pacifico and was renamed SANTIAGO, and in 1909 she went to Chilean owners and was renamed ARMONIA. In 1917 she became Canadian owned and was torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine near Porquerolles Island in the Mediterranean on 15/3/1918. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.555-6]

WERRA 1882
The WERRA was a 4,817 gross ton ship, length 433.1ft x beam 45.9ft, two funnels, four masts, iron hull, single screw and a speed of 16 knots. Accommodation for 125-1st, 130-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Built by John Elder, Glasgow, she was launched on 4th Jul.1882 for North German Lloyd of Bremen. Her maiden voyage started 12th Oct.1882 from Bremen to Southampton and New York and her last sailing on this route started 9th Nov.1891. On 4th Jan.1892 she transferred to Genoa - New York sailings, commencing her last voyage on this service on 10th Nov.1909. From Dec.1898 to summer 1899 she was chartered to Spain to repatriate Spanish troops from Cuba and on 24th Sep.1899 sailed from Bremen for Southampton, New York, Naples and Genoa. Her final voyage between Genoa, Naples and New York started 28th Aug.1901 and she was then scrapped. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.552]

9,476 gross tons, length 146.00m x beam 17.58m, one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 12.5 knots, accommodation for 74-1st and 90-2nd class passengers. Built by AG Weser, Bremen for North German Lloyd, Bremen principally for their Far East service, but also sailed to North, Central and South America. Launched on 21st Sep.1922 she made her maiden voyage Bremen to East Asia, then ran to the River Plate. In 1933 she was used on the Bremen - Havana - Galveston service and in Aug.1935 was sold to Italia Line, Genoa, renamed CALABRIA and used for trooping. In 1936 she transferred to the ownership of Lloyd Triestino, Trieste and was placed on the South and East Africa and later Asia services. On 10th Jun.1940 was seized by British authorities in Calcutta and transferred to the management of British India Steam Navigation Co. On 8th Dec.1940 she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.103 while 380 miles west of Galway, Ireland while on passage Freetown to Glasgow.[Norddeutscher Lloyd, Bremen, vol.2 by Edwin Drechsel] [Merchant Fleets, vol.40 by Duncan Haws]

WESER 1858
The WESER was a 2,266 gross ton ship, built by Palmer Bros & Co, Jarrow-on-Tyne for North German Lloyd in 1858. Her details were - length 307ft x beam 40.8ft, clipper stem, two funnels, three masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. There was accommodation for 70-1st, 100-2nd and 450-3rd class passengers. Launched on 21/10/1858, she sailed from Bremen on her maiden voyage to New York on 4/12/1858, but had to put back to Cork for repairs after being damaged by heavy seas. She sailed from Cork on 6th March 1859 and arrived in New York on 18th March. She started her third and last Bremen - Southampton - New York voyage on 1st July 1859, and became a French Naval Transport later the same year. On 16/1/1861 she was wrecked 60 miles from Poulo Condor, Cochin China. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.544]

WESER 1867
2,870 gross tons, length 325ft x beam 40ft, clipper stem, one funnel, two masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. Accommodation for 60-1st, 120-2nd and 700-3rd class passengers. Built by Caird & Co, Greenock, she was launched for North German Lloyd on 19th Mar.1867. Maiden voyage Bremen - Southampton - New York started 1st Jun.1867. Fitted with compound engines by the builders in 1881 and started her last Bremen - New York - Baltimore sailing on 13th Jun.1895. She then started the first of two Bremen - South America sailings on 3rd Aug.1895 and was scrapped in 1896. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.545]

2,269 gross tons, length 285.3ft x beam 40.7ft, clipper stem, one funnel, two masts, wooden construction, side paddle wheel propulsion and a speed of 12 knots. Built by F. D. Tucker, New York (engines by Morgan Ironworks, New York), she was launched in 1864. Between 1864-65 she was used as an American Civil War transport and in 1866 was purchased by North American Lloyd. She sailed from New York on 28th Jun.1866 for Southampton and Bremen and put into Boston on 6th July with damaged paddles, but sailed again on 10th July. Further trouble forced her back to New York on 19th July and the voyage was abandoned and she was laid up. Purchased by the New York & Bremen Steamship Co, she sailed from New York on 7th Mar.1867 for Southampton and Bremen. Her last voyage on this service started on 24th Aug.1867 and on 8th Sep.1867 she arrived at Cowes, Isle of Wight with a broken shaft and was delayed for nearly a month for repairs. She left Bremen on her final crossing to Southampton and New York on 20th Oct.1867 having made a total of four round voyages on the North Atlantic route. By this tine, ocean going paddle steamers were out of date and she was sold in 1869. In 1878 her engines were removed. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.713]

The WESTERNLAND was built by Laird Bros at Birkenhead in 1883 for the Red Star Line of Antwerp and was built in a drydock as opposed to a slipway and was floated out on completion on 4th Aug.1883. She had a straight stem, two funnels, four masts, single screw and a speed of 14 knots. She was 5736 gross tons, length 440ft x beam 47.2ft and had accommodation for 80-1st, 60-2nd, and 1,200-3rd class passengers. She sailed under the Belgian flag on her maiden voyage from Antwerp to New York on 3rd Nov.1883 and stayed on this service until 1901 when she was transferred to the American Line and altered to carry 170-2nd and 1,200-3rd class passengers. She sailed on her first trip under the US flag from Liverpool to Philadelphia in May 1901. In 1906 she resumed service for Red Star Line's Antwerp - NY service for three round voyages and then went back to the American Line and made her last trip for them from Liverpool - Philadelphia in September 1908. She was scrapped in 1912. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.852]


10,926 gross tons, length 496ft x beam 64.9ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 16.5 knots, accommodation for 102-1st class passengers and carried a crew of 120.. Built by Napier & Miller Ltd, Glasgow for the Prince Line's River Plate - New York service, she was launched on 20th Jun.1929 and was one of four sister ships designed for this service. On 12th* Dec.1940 she left New York for Liverpool, but was torpedoed by the German submarine U.96 on 14th Dec. while in position 59.32N 17.47W. Crew and passengers abandoned the ship which was sunk 45 minutes later by another torpedo. 16 lives lost (including the Master), 154 survivors (55 passengers and 99 crew). She had also previously been attacked on 20th Apr.1940 and damaged by aircraft gunfire in the Thames Estuary. * some sources say she sailed on 6th Dec. and some say 12th Dec. Information from [British Vessels Lost at Sea 1939-45, HMSO] [Wartime Disasters at Sea by David Williams] [Great Passenger Ships of the World, vol.3 by Arnold Kludas (contains photo)] [Merchant Fleets, vol.38 by Duncan Haws] [Pride of the Princes by Norman L. Middlemiss] [The World's Merchant Fleets 1939 by Roger Jordan]

O.N.222063 13,712 gross tons, length 517ft x beam 72.2ft, twin screw, speed 18.5 knots, accomodation for 260-1st and 300-3rd class passengers. Built 1922 by Bethlehem SB Corp., Sparrows Point, Md as the NUTMEG STATE for the U.S. Shipping Board. Baltimore. 1922 renamed WESTERN WORLD, used on the New York - River Plate service and managed by Munson Line. 1926 sold to Munson Line, NY. Aug.1931 stranded near Santos, Brazil and passengers taken off by Hamburg America Line's GENERAL OSORIO. WESTERN WORLD was refloated four weeks later and repaired. In 1938 the U.S. maritime Commission took over Munson Line's fleet as the company was in financial difficulty. In 1939 the ship was taken over by the U.S. Army and converted to the transport LEONARD WOOD. 1941 transferred to U.S. Navy. 1946 returned to U.S. Army, then to U.S. Maritime Commission for disposal and laid up. 1948 scrapped at Vancouver, Wash. [Register of Merchant Ships Completed in 1922 by Starke / Schell] [Great Passenger Ships of the World, vol.2 by A. Kludas ISBN 0-85059-242-9 includes a photo of her identical sister ship PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT, but mistakenly states that the WESTERN WORLD was built in 1912]

The WESTPHALIA was built in 1868 by Caird & Co., Greenock for Hamburg America Line. She was a 3,158 gross ton ship, length 339.9ft x beam 40ft, one funnel, two masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 12 knots. There was accommodation for 90-1st, 130-2nd and 520-3rd class passengers. Launched on 24th Jun.1868, she sailed from Hamburg on her maiden voyage to Southampton and New York on 16th Sep.1868. She commenced her last voyage from Hamburg to Havre and New York on 28th Apr.1875 before being laid up. In 1878 she was rebuilt with two funnels and compound engines, and on 30th Jul.1879 she resumed the Hamburg - Havre - New York service. She started her last voyage to New York on 19th Dec.1886 and in 1887 was sold to the British company, H.F.Swan of Newcastle who re-engined her and renamed her ATLANTICA. In 1888 she went to Gazzo & Schiafino of Italy and was renamed PROVINCIA DI SAO PAULO. In 1889 she was resold to La Veloce of Italy and was renamed MENTANA and was further renamed SUD AMERICA later in 1891. She was finally scrapped in Genoa in 1901. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1, p.390] [Merchant Fleets in Profile, vol.4 Hamburg America Line by Duncan Haws.]

The WESTRALIA was a 8108 gross ton, twin screw motor ship, dimensions 448ft x 60.2ft x 25.1ft, speed 16 knots. Accommodation for 360-1st and 90-3rd class passengers. Built in 1929 by Harland & Wolff, Glasgow for Huddart Parker Ltd, Melbourne, she was used on the Australia - New Zealand service. Taken over by the Admiralty in Nov.1939, she was commissioned as the armed merchant cruiser HMAS WESTRALIA in Jan.1940. Later converted to an Infantry Landing Ship and from 1945-1950 became a troopship. Returned to her owners in 1951. I have no subsequent info on this ship. There was also a Danish owned WESTRALIA at the same time used for general tramping work.

5,610 gross tons, length 420ft x beam 54ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 15 knots, accommodation for 26-1st class and 250-emigrants in the 'tween decks. Built by Hawthorn Leslie & Co, Newcastle-upon-Tyne for the New Zealand Shipping Co, London, she was delivered on 23rd Jan.1900. She started her maiden voyage on 1st March when she left London for Cape Town, Auckland and Wellington. In 1920 she was converted to cargo only and in 1924 was sold to Soc.Anon de Navegazione Alta Italia, Italy and renamed MOCENISIO. Scrapped in 1929. [Merchant Fleets, vol.7 by Duncan Haws] [North Star to Southern Cross by John Maber]

WHIRLWIND 1853 I don't have much information on this ship, but she was 1,003 registered tons, builders J.O.Curtis of Medford, Mass, USA, built in 1853 for the Black Ball Line. [The Colonial Clippers by Basil Lubbock] There is a website for the Black Ball Line at - http://www.southernx.com.au/clippers.html - but this has now become a commercial site.

O.N.81957, 1,192 gross tons, length 249.7ft x beam 31.2ft, iron hull, single screw. Launched on 5th May 1880 by Harland & Wolff, Belfast (Yard No.135) for the Ulster Steamship Co.(G. Heyn & Sons Ltd),she was used for general cargo work until 1914 when she was taken over for government service. From 31st Aug.1914 to 27th Oct.1914 became Government Store Carrier No.1. 30th Oct.1914 to 15th Jul.1915 operated as Expeditionary Force Transport Vessel. 16th Jul.1915 became a Miscellaneous Vessel (Commissioned) on charter to the Government of Montenegro. 15th Oct.1917 torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine UC.74 under the command of Kapitan Leutnant Marshal, operating from Pola while 40 miles NNE from Suda Bay with the loss of 23 lives.[Head Line by W. J. Harvey, ISBN 0-905617-53-3 contains photo of the ship.]

WHITLIEBURN 1894 O.N.104570
was a 2,006 gross ton sailing ship, built 1894 by Connell, Scotstoun for J. Carswell, Glasgow. 1909: April: Sold to A/S Whitlieburn (R. Salvesen & Co.), Tvedestrand She went missing on voyage Antofagasta, Chile to Falmouth (for orders) with a cargo of saltpetre with the loss of 20 men

The WIELAND was a 3,507 gross ton ship, length 375.3ft x beam 39.9ft, one funnel, two masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was accommodation for 90-1st, 100-2nd and 800-3rd class passengers. Built by A Stephen & Sons, Glasgow, she was launched for the Adler Line on 16th Jun.1874 but was immediately laid up due to the lack of passenger demand and never ran for the Adler Line. Purchased by the Hamburg America Line in 1875, she left Hamburg on her maiden voyage to Havre and New York on 7th Jul.1875. Rebuilt with two funnels in 1882 and started her last Hamburg - New York voyage on 29th Aug.1894. On 6th Oct.1894 she started a single round voyage between Naples and New York and was sold to other German owners in 1895. Damaged by fire at Shanghai on 15th Oct.1895, she was scrapped the following year. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.392]

The WILHELM GUSTLOFF was built as the first of Hitler's "Strength through joy" workers cruise ships in 1937. Used as an accommodation ship at Gdynia throughout most of the war, her sinking was the worst maritime tragedy of all time. On 30th Jan.1945 she was used in the evacuation of German Eastern territories and loaded with about 6,100 refugees, prisoners, and wounded and ordered to a Western German port. The same day, she was hit by three torpedoes in the Baltic Sea from a Russian submarine, later capsized and all but 904 were lost. The actual number lost is vague because of the lack of passenger lists and record keeping, but is thought to be as high as 5,400.

The WILLEHAD and was built by Blohm & Voss, Hamburg in 1894 for Norddeutscher Lloyd [North German Lloyd]. She was a 4,761 gross ton ship, length 383.4ft x beam 46ft, one funnel, two masts, steel construction, twin screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 105-2nd class and 1,196-3rd class. Launched on 21/3/1894, she sailed from Bremen on her maiden voyage to New York on 24/5/1894. On 10/11/1894 she commenced her first Bremen - South America voyage and on 4/12/1896 started her first Bremen - New York - Baltimore run. On 23/5/1903 she commenced the last of 12 round voyages to S. America and on 3/5/1904 started sailing between Stettin, Helsingborg, Gothenburg, Christiansand and New York (3 round voyages). On 31/12/1912 she started Hamburg - Quebec - Montreal sailings and on 4/1/1912 commenced Bremen - Philadelphia voyages. On 31/12/1912 she started her last sailing between Bremen, Philadelphia and Baltimore and on 10/7/1914 commenced the last of 24 round voyages when she left Hamburg for Quebec and Montreal. In Aug 1914 she took refuge in New London, Conn. due to the outbreak of the Great War and in April 1917 was seized by the US authorities. She then became the US Government ship WYANDOTTE until 1924 when she was scrapped at Baltimore. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.558]

The WILLIAM PENN was built by Malcolmson Bros, Waterford, Ireland in 1865. She was a 2,647 gross ton ship, length 316.3ft x beam 36.3ft, clipper stem, one funnel, four masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. There was accommodation for 1st, 2nd and 700-3rd class passengers. Originally laid down as the MANHATTAN, she was launched on 10/7/1865 as the WILLIAM PENN for the London & New York Steamship Line. Her maiden voyage commenced on 10/4/1866 when she left London for Havre, St John's, NF and New York and she commenced the last of 18 round voyages on 13/3/1869 when she sailed from London for Havre and New York. In 1869 she went to the Allan Line of Liverpool who renamed her EUROPEAN and used her as an extra steamer on the Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal service. In 1872 she was sold to the Hughes Line of Liverpool and was employed on their Liverpool - Bombay route, but in July and October 1874 made 2 round voyages between Liverpool, Quebec and Montreal. When entering Morpeth Dock, Birkenhead in 1875, she broke her back, was rebuilt to 2,659 tons and a length of 326.8ft, and fitted with compound engines. In 1884 she was again fitted with new engines and came under the ownership of T.R. Oswald (British). Between 1889 and 1894 she was owned by the Ross Line and in 1897 was reduced to a hulk. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.598]

Built by John Brown & Co, Clydebank, this was a 18,967 gross ton ship, length 632.45ft x beam 72.5ft, four funnels, two masts, twin screw and a service speed of 16 knots. There was accommodation for 234-1st, 362-2nd and 274-3rd class passengers. Launched on 9th Mar.1922 for the Union-Castle Mail SS Co by the Prince of Wales, she entered service on the Southampton - Cape Town mail run in April 1922. Modernised in 1937 with two funnels and new bows, her speed was increased to 19 knots and she resumed service in Jan.1938. Taken over for trooping in Sep.1939, she was bombed west of Ireland in 1941 but the bomb never exploded and she reached port. Used for transatlantic trooping from Canada and the USA in 1942. On 23rd Mar.1943 she was hit by an aerial torpedo 110 miles northwest of Algiers and sank 13 hours later. Although carrying 2,700 troops, only one life was lost. [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.18, Union-Castle Line]

The WINFRIED was a 3751 gross ton ship, length 110.5m x beam 15.3m, speed 11 knots, accommodation for a limited number of passengers. Launched in Jun.1920 by J. Frerichs & Co, Einswarden for the Hamburg Bremer Afrika Line, which was connected with the Woermann Line. She was the first new German built ship to West Africa since before the Great War. In 1926 HBAL fused with North German Lloyd and in 1935 the ship was transferred to Deutsche Levante Line under the reorganisation of German shipping companies and renamed YALOVA 1939 laid up in Varna. 1940 became Kriegsmarine transport. 28th Sep.1941 torpedoed by HMS TETRARCH off Aghios Georgios Island, Gulf of Salamis. 29th Sep.again attacked and beached. Later sank on 3rd Oct.1941. [Die Schiffe der deutschen Afrika Linien 1880-1945 by A. Kludas] [Norddeutscher Lloyd, Bremen vol.2 by Edwin Dreschel] Both books contain a photo of the ship.

The WISCONSIN was a 3,238 gross ton ship, built by Palmer Bros & Co, Jarrow-on-Tyne in 1870 for the Guion Line of Liverpool. Her details were - length 366ft x beam 43.2ft, straight stem, one funnel, two masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 76-1st, 100-intermediate and 800-3rd class. Launched on 19/3/1870, she commenced her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Queenstown (Cobh) and New York on 6/7/1870. She was rebuilt to 3,700 tons about 1874 and sailed on her last voyage between Liverpool, Queenstown and New York on 22/10/1892. She was scrapped the following year. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.709]

A 4,755 gross ton ship, built by Blohm & Voss, Hamburg in 1894 for Norddeutscher Lloyd [North German Lloyd] of Bremen. Her details were - length 383.4ft x beam 46ft, straight stem, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was accommodation for 174-2nd and 1,366-3rd class passengers. Launched on 3/2/1894, she sailed on her maiden voyage from Bremen to New York on 14/4/1894. She made 11 round voyages on this service, the last commencing 8/8/1895 and on 21/9/1895 was transferred to the Bremen - South America service. In 1900 she was rebuilt by Wigham Richardson, Wallsend-on-Tyne to a length of 446ft, 5,640 gross tons. On 24/2/1906 she commenced her first voyage from Bremen to Baltimore, on 6/4/1911 Bremen - Philadelphia - Galveston and on 16/6/1911 Hamburg - Quebec - Montreal. On 14/9/1912 she sailed on her last Bremen - S. America voyage (33 round voyages), on 2/4/1914 her last Bremen - Philadelphia - Galveston voyage and on 25/6/1914 started her last Hamburg - Quebec - Montreal sailing (4 round voyages). She sailed from Hamburg on 24/7/1914 for Quebec and Montreal, but because of the outbreak of the Great War, she diverted to Boston and took refuge there. In April 1917 she was seized by the US authorities and became the US Government ship IROQUOIS. In 1919 she was renamed FREEDOM and in 1924 was scrapped. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.2,p.557]

WOODVILLE 1892 O.N. 102028
2,513 g.t., 299ft x 40.8ft, built 1892 by J. Readhead & Sons, South Shields for Woodville SS Co. (Balls & Stansfield), North Shields.
1916 Southern Whaling & Sealing Co. Ltd (R. Irvin), N. Shields.
1924 African & Eastern Trade Corp Ltd, Liverpool.
1927 VOLGAS, B. J. Andreadakis & A. Stavridis, Piraeus.
11th Jan.1937 ashore Milos Island on voyage Mersin - Hamburg with grain and later sank.

3,521 gross tons, 360ft x 44.5ft, one funnel, three masts, single screw, speed 10 knots. Built 1891 by Wigham Richardson, Newcastle for Lund's Blue Anchor Line's London - Australia service. 1901 sold to R. P. Houston & Co renamed HARMONIDES. 1902 rammed and sank the Red Star Line ship WAESLAND off Anglesey. 1919 sold to Kaye, Son & Co renamed KHARTOUM. 1926 scrapped at Genoa. [Merchant Fleets vol.1 by Duncan Haws]

O.N.112723, 3013 gross tons, length 325ft x beam 46.5ft, single screw cargo ship. Completed Jun.1900 by J. Blumer & Co., Sunderland (Yard No.154) as the CLAVERLEY for Claverhill SS Co (E. Haslehurst & Co), London. 1906 sold to Wing Steamship Co.(N. Hallett & Co), London renamed WHITE WINGS. 1913 sold to Hants Steam Navigation Co (A. H. Williams & Co), London, renamed WOOLSTON. 1916 sold to Woolston SS Co (S. Instone & Co), London. 14th May 1918 torpedoed and sunk by German submarine UC.52 while 1.5 miles from Syracuse Harbour in position 37.30N 12.20E while on voyage Syracuse to Messina with a cargo of sulphur. The Master and 18 crew were lost.

The WORCESTER was a 1,244 gross ton ship, built by J.B.& J.D.Van Dusen, New York (engines Atlantic Works, New York) in 1863. Her details were - length 209.5ft x beam 35.5ft, straight stem, one funnel, two masts, wooden construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. There was capacity for 30-1st, 20-2nd and 300-3rd class passengers. Launched on 11th February 1863 as the GLAUCUS for the Neptune Line, she was purchased by the US Navy. After the ending of the Civil War, she was sold by auction and puchased by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, who placed her in service between Baltimore and Liverpool under the description of Baltimore & Liverpool Steamship Co. They renamed her WORCESTER and on 29th November 1865 she sailed from Baltimore for Liverpool but returned to Baltimore with engine trouble. On 23rd December 1865 she again left Baltimore and made her first complete round voyage to Liverpool. She sailed from Liverpool on 29th May 1867 and lost her propeller, returned to Queenstown (Cobh) on 4th June and was towed to Liverpool for repairs. The last Baltimore - Liverpool - Baltimore started on 15th September 1868 and the service then closed down, the WORCESTER having made 12 round voyages. During the winter of 1868-9 she sailed between Baltimore and New York and was then laid up. In 1873 she was sold to Boston owners and sailed between Boston, Halifax and Prince Edward Island until 1894 when she was scrapped at Boston. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.693]

WORDSWORTH 3260 gross tons, length 367ft x beam 39.1ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 10 knots. Built 1882 by Andrew Leslia & Co, Hebburn-on-Tyne (engines by R.Stephenson & Co, Liverpool) as the CAPELLA for Star Navigation Co, Liverpool (Rathbone Bros). Forward of the bridge, she carried cattle and the deck could be opened to the air. This was plated in when carrying ordinary cargo. 1889 transferred to the Liverpool, Brazil & River Plate Steam Navigation Co (Lamport & Holt Ltd), renamed WORDSWORTH and started her first Antwerp - River Plate voyage on 4th Sep.1889. Transferred to Societe de Nav.Royale Belge Sud-Americaine (a Lamport & Holt subsidiary company) and the Belgian flag in 1890. On 1st Aug.1902 she was wrecked near Bahia, Brazil while on passage New York - Rio de Janeiro. [Lamport & Holt by P.M.Heaton] [Merchant Fleets, vol.34, Lamport & Holt by Duncan Haws]

The HARBURG was a cargo vessel built by Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Newcastle in 1907 as the WORMS for the German Australian Line. Her details were 4,486 gross tons, length 401ft x beam 52ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. In 1919 she was ceded to Britain under the war reparations scheme, repurchased by her original owners in 1922, she was renamed HARBURG and in 1926 was taken over with the rest of their fleet by Hamburg America Line. In December 1932 she was sold and scrapped. [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.4, Hamburg America Line]

8829 gros tons, length 466ft x beam 58ft, one funnel, four masts, single screw, speed 13 knots, accommodation for 16-cabin and 790-3rd class passengers. Built by Bremer Vulkan, Vegesack, she was launched on 12th Aug.1921 for Hamburg America Line and started her maiden voyage from Hamburg to New York on 14th Nov.1921. Her tenth and last voyage on this service started 7th Dec.1922 and she then transferred to the South America trade. In 1935 she was converted to a 11,767 ton German whaling ship and renamed JAN WELLEM. Sunk by British destroyers at Narvik on 13th Apr.1940, raised, repaired and used by Germany as a tankship. Damaged at Memel in 1945, towed to Kiel and scrapped at Blyth in 1947. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.1,p.416 by N.R.P.Bonsor]

The WURZBURG was a 4,985 gross ton ship, length 402.2ft x beam 47.1ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 12 knots and accommodation for 31-2nd and 1,012-3rd class passengers. Launched on 25th Sep.1900 by Bremer Vulkan, Vegesack for North German Lloyd, Bremen, she started her maiden voyage from Bremen to Baltimore on 8th Dec.1900. She then made a single round voyage between Bremen and Galveston, before transferring to the Bremen - Suez - Far East service on 2nd May 1901. She started her last voyage on this route in Oct.1903 and on 23rd Apr.1904 commenced her first Bremen - South America sailing. Her first of three Bremen - New York sailings took place on 13th Feb.1906 and her last on 12th Mar.1907. She was subsequently used on the South America service, starting her last voyage on 30th May.1914. Seized by Portugal in the Cape Verde Islands in 1916, she was renamed SAO VICENTE and made two Lisbon - Azores - New York sailings for Transportes Maritimos do Estado in 1921. In 1925 she became the LOANDA for Cia Colonial and was scrapped in Italy in 1938. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.564]

WYANDOTTE 1917 - see WILLEHAD 1893

The WYOMING was built in 1870 by Palmer Bros & Co, Jarrow-on-Tyne for the Guion Line. She was a 3,238 gross ton ship, length 366.2ft x beam 43.2ft, straight stem, one funnel, two masts (rigged for sail), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. There was accommodation for 76-1st, 100-intermediate and 800-3rd class passengers. She sailed from Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Queenstown (Cobh) and New York on 25/11/1870. In 1874 (or earlier) she was rebuilt to 3,729 tons and on 19/11/1892 commenced her last Liverpool - New York crossing. She was scrapped in 1893. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.709]

XENIA 1895
XENIA. This ship belonged to the Scandinavian-American Line, Copenhagen (DFDS). She was a 2455 gross ton ship, length 306ft x beam 40ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. Primarily a cargo ship, she had accommodation for 6 passengers. Built by Lobnitz & Co, Renfrew, she was delivered to DFDS on 4th Sep.1895 and from 1895 to 1897 was used on the St. Petersburg - Riga - Copenhagen - Antwerp - Mediterranean - Odessa service. From 1896 to 1903 she sailed on the Copenhagen to North America run, mostly to the Gulf of Mexico, but also to Atlantic seaboard ports. On 1st Feb.1903, on voyage from Newcastle to Boston with a cargo of coal, she ran aground during a gale and snow and was wrecked on rocks at Scourse of Cruden, Scotland with the loss of two lives.
[DFDS 1866-1991 by S.Thorsoe]

The YALE was launched on December 1st 1906 by the Delaware River Company and was one of the first two American turbine steamers. She was a 3,731 gross ton ship, two funnels and two masts, triple screws and a speed of 22.5 knots. Designed for the express service of the New York - Boston , she actually commenced her first commercial voyage from Boston to St John, NB. She started the NY - Boston service on September 9th 1907 and then went from New York to the Pacific coast in 1910 and was sold to the Pacific Navigation Co. of San Francisco. She returned to the Atlantic coast for war service in 1917 and was used to carry American troops from Britain to the French front. After the war she was purchased by the Los Angeles SS Co. and returned to service between Los Angeles and San Francisco. In January 1931 she came under the control of the Matson Line, was withdrawn from service in 1935 and laid up at Antioch, Calif. She was sold to a construction company in 1941 and proceeded to Seattle, Sitka and later Kodiak as an accommodation ship for for the employees. She was later purchased by the US Navy, renamed GREYHOUND and used for passenger carrying between the Aleutian Islands. After the end of WWII, she returned to Puget Sound Navy Yard and was turned over to the US Maritime Commission and was offered for sale. In May 1949 she was sold to Walter W.Johnson Co. of San Francisco, was towed to Stockton, Calif. where she was scrapped between July 25th and December 17th 1949. [Article by John H.Kemble, Claremont, Calif. Sea Breezes Magazine, June 1951]

2,194 gross tons, length 285ft x beam 36.7ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw, speed 9 knots. She was principally a cargo ship with limited accommodation for saloon passengers, although a considerable number of emigrants could be carried when occasion demanded. Built 1882 by Campbell, MacIntosh & Bowstead, Newcastle for Lund's Blue Anchor Line. Entered service in Mar.1882 on the London - Cape - Adelaide - Melbourne - Hobart - Launceston - Sydney route with periodic extensions to Suva and Levula, Fiji. 1887 re-engined to give a speed of 10 knots. 1891 sold to Vapores Serra, Bilbao, Spain and renamed RITA. 1898 seized by the U.S.S. YALE off Puerto Rico during the Spanish American War and renamed BURNSIDE. Operated by the U.S. War Department. 1923 scrapped in the U.S.A.

The YOKOHAMA MARU was built in 1912 by Mitsubishi Dockyard for Nippon Yusen Kaisha of Tokyo. She was a 6,143 gross ton ship, length 409ft x beam 49ft, twin screw and a speed of 14 knots. She sailed between Japanese ports and Seattle between 1912 and 1933 when she was transferred to the South Pacific service. She was sunk by US aircraft on 10.3.1942. [Pacific Liners 1927-72 by Frederick Emmons]

YORCK 1906
8901 gross tons, length 146.55m x beam 17.46m, one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 14 knots, accommodation for 108-1st, 112-2nd and 1,450-steeerage class passengers. Built by F. Schichau, Danzig, she was launched on 10th Apr.1906 for North German Lloyd, Bremen and started her maiden voyage from Bremen to New York on 23rd Nov.1906. Her second and last voyage on this route started 12th Jan.1907 and on 20th Feb.1907 she commenced her first Bremen - Southampton - Suez - Fremantle - Adelaide - Melbourne - Sydney sailing. She made four voyages on this service, the last starting on 25th Nov.1908. Interspersed with this service, she made many voyages from Bremen to the Far East. She made one further Bremen - New York sailing, starting 20th Mar.1909, but was used mostly on Far East voyages. Used as a hospital ship during WWI and later interned at Valparaiso. Retained by North German Lloyd after the Armistice, she was converted to cabin, tourist and 3rd-class and used from 1922 on the North Atlantic service. Her final crossing started 1st Jun.1932 when she sailed from Galveston for Bremen and she was scrapped at Elbing the following year. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.2,p.568 by N.R.P.Bonsor] [Norddeutscher Lloyd, vol.1 by Edwin Drechsel] [North Star to Southern Cross by John Maber]

This was a 8,103 gross ton ship, 448.4ft x 55.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 13 knots with accommodation for 136-1st and 1,049-3rd class passengers. Built in 1908 by Germaniawerft (Fried Krupp AG), Kiel for the Hamburg America Line's South America service. Her maiden voyage from Hamburg to Brazil started 14th Oct.1908 and on 15th Mar.1911 she started a single round voyage between Hamburg and Philadelphia. She subsequently transferred to the Hamburg - Cuba - Mexico service. Surrendered to Britain in 1919 she was operated by the White Star Line and was used on her first voyage to repatriate troops and was then placed on the Australia route. Laid up in 1920 she was then refitted, sold to the Anchor Line in 1921 and was renamed ASSYRIA. Used on the New York route until 1925 when she was switched to Bombay sailings. In 1929 she was sold to Cia Colonial de Navegacao, Lisbon, renamed COLONIAL and put on the Lisbon - Angola - Mozambique route. Wrecked in 1950 at Campbeltown while under tow to the breakers. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.1,p.414] [South American Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor] [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol.9, Anchor Line]

3,063 gross tons, length 324.6ft x beam 38.1ft, one funnel, two masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 10 knots. Accommodation for 500-1st and 424-3rd class passengers. Built by Nederlandsche Stoomboot Mij Fijenoord, Rotterdam, she was launched on 2nd May 1882 for the Holland America Line. Her maiden voyage Amsterdam - New York started on 29th Jul.1882 and her last on 20th Oct.1888. She was then switched to the South America service. On 18th Sep.1890 she commenced her first Rotterdam - New York sailing and on 29th Jun.1892 resumed Amsterdam - New York voyages. Her last sailing on this route started 8th May 1897 and she was sold to the Austro Americana Line the same year and renamed STYRIA. In 1902 she went to the US owned Luckenbach Line and was renamed JULIA LUCKENBACH and on 3rd Jan.1913 was sunk in Chesapeake Bay in collision with the British owned SS INDRAKUALA. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.3, p.910]

ZAIDA 1900 see KAIKOURA 1884

1615 gross tons, length 215.6ft x beam 35.1ft (65.71m x 10.7m), three masted, full rigged ship, iron hull. Built by C. Connell, Glasgow in 1869 for Shaw Savill & Co, she started her maiden voyage from the UK via the Cape to New Zealand on 28th Aug.1869 and arrived there in 84 days. The ship was noted for it's excellent passenger accommodation which included a ladies saloon. In 1877 she collided with the ELLEN LAMB but was repaired. Transferred to Shaw Savill & Albion on the formation of the company in 1882, she was reduced to a barque. Sold to Sweden in 1903 and renamed KALEVA in 1908. She later became Russian owned and in 1911 stranded on the coast of Northumberland. She was last recorded as a barge at St. John, NB owned by Charles Brister & Son, Halifax, NS. [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, Shaw Savill & Albion]

The ZEALANDIA was a 2,730 gross ton ship, one funnel, four masts (rigged for sail), single screw, speed 13 knots, accommodation for 170-1st, 30-2nd and 100-3rd class passengers. Built 1875 by Elder & Co., Glasgow for Sir William Pearce and despatched from London to Melbourne at the end of 1875 under the Colonial Line of Packets. Although nominally owned by Pearce, she was operated by the Pacific Mail S.S. Co. and used on the San Francisco to Auckland and Sydney service. Although Pacific Mail was a U.S. company, she sailed under the British flag with British officers and Chinese crews. In 1886 she was sold or chartered to the Oceanic S.S. Co. (Spreckles Line) and registered in Hawaii. Used on the San Francisco - Honolulu - Samoa (Pago Pago) - Auckland - Sydney route until 1890 when she transferred to San Francisco - Honolulu sailings. In 1898 she became a military transport until 1902 when she was returned to her owners. 1905 sold to C. L. Dimon, New York. 1914 sold to Fisk Trading Co., and wrecked on the Mersey Bar, Liverpool on 2nd Apr.1917.[North Star to Southern Cross by John M. Maber] [Cargoes by William L. Worden]

2,771 gross tons, speed 13 knots, she was built in 1899 by Gourlay Bros, Dundee as the ZEALANDIA for Huddart, Parker & Co., Melbourne and used on the Tasman passenger trade. 1908 purchased by the Union Steamship Co. of New Zealand, renamed PALOONA and remained on Tasman services except for occasional voyages to San Francisco and Fiji in 1917 and 1919. On 28th Dec.1922 she was laid up at Port Chalmers and in 1928 was dismantled and sunk along the mole stonework at at Otago harbour entrance.

10,898 gross tons, 477.5ft x 63.1ft, twin screw, speed 14 knots, built 1911 by Harland & Wolff, Belfast for the joint White Star Line / Shaw Savill & Albion Line service from London to New Zealand. 30th Oct.1911 maiden voyage to Wellington. 1913 chartered by the Western Australian Government as an emigrant carrier. Jul.1917 to Jun.1919 requisitioned under the liner requisition scheme and used as troopship. 1926 transferred to the Aberdeen Line and renamed MAMILIUS. 1932 returned to Shaw, Savill & Albion Line renamed MAMARI. 1939 sold to the British Admiralty and converted to dummy aircraft carrier HMS HERMES. 4th Jun.1941 hit a submerged wreck near Cromer after German air attack and beached. Later destroyed by E-boat torpedo attack.

8,281 gross tons, 482.6ft x 64.2ft, accommodation for 6-1st class passengers, built 1928 by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Newcastle for Shaw, Savill & Albion Line's U.K. - Australia service. 17th Jan.1941 torpedoed and sunk in stormy weather, three days outward bound from Liverpool for Panama and Brisbane. All hands were lost.

The ZEALOUS was a 613 gross ton ship, length 230ft x beam 27.1ft, iron hull, two funnels, two masts (rigged for sail), side paddle wheel propulsion, speed 14 knots. Built by John & William Dudgeon, Cubitts Town, London in 1864, she was the first vessel to be built for the Great Eastern Railway Co. after it's formation. Registered at Harwich, she opened G.E.R's service to Rotterdam on 14th June 1864. On 1st Aug.1864 she inaugurated the Harwich (Town Quay) to Antwerp passenger only service. In 1866 cargo gear was installed forward and a derrick fitted to the foremast. Fitted with new boilers in 1873, she was scrapped in 1887.[Merchant Fleets, vol.25 by Duncan Haws ISBN 0-946378-22-3 (contains a small line drawing of the ship)]

11,905 gross tons, length 561.6ft x beam 60.2ft, two funnels, four masts, twin screw, speed 15 knots, accommodation for 342-1st, 194-2nd and 626-3rd class passengers. Launched on 24th Nov.1900 by John Brown & Co., Glasgow as the ZEELAND for the Red Star Line, she was registered under the British flag. 13th Apr.1901 first voyage Antwerp - New York, 5th Mar.1910 last voyage Antwerp - Dover - New York. 19th Apr.1910 chartered to White Star Line and started Liverpool - Boston sailings. She made her fourteenth and last sailing on this service in Sep.1911 and on 21st Oct.1911 resumed Antwerp - Dover - NY sailings for Red Star Line. 13th Jul.1912 transferred to Belgian registry but continued the same service. On 18th Jul.1914 she started her last voyage on this route and on 11th Sep.1914 returned to the British flag and began Liverpool - NY voyages. Chartered to White Star-Dominion Line, she was used from Nov.1914 on the Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal service. Dec.1914 Liverpool - Halifax - Portland. Her last voyage on this service started Jan.1915 and she was then transferred to the International Navigation Co., Liverpool and renamed NORTHLAND. Mar.1915 chartered to White Star - Dominion Line for their Liverpool - Halifax - Portland and Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal routes until becoming a troopship. In Aug.1916 she resumed the same services for White Star - Dominion Line until Feb.1919 when she was chartered to American Line and sailed Liverpool - Philadelphia for four round voyages. On 18th Aug.1920 she resumed the Antwerp - Southampton - NY service as the ZEELAND under the British flag for Red Star Line, starting her last voyage on 8th Oct.1926. 1927 sold to Atlantic Transport Line, renamed MINNESOTA and fitted with tourist class only accommodation. 30th Apr.1927 first voyage London - NY. 21st Sep.1929 last voyage London - NY. 1930 scrapped at Inverkeithing. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.2, p.855 by N. Bonsor]

7,995 gross tons, length 440ft x beam 55.7ft (134.10m x 16.97m), one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 14 knots. Accommodation for 118-1st, 114-2nd and 998-3rd class passengers. Built by A.Stephen & Sons, Glasgow she was launched on 26th Apr.1910 for Royal Holland Lloyd (Koninklijke Hollandsche Lloyd). Her maiden voyage from Amsterdam to South American ports started on 21st Jul.1910 and she continued this service until March 1918 when she was requisitioned by the US Government. Returned to Dutch service in 1919, she was laid up in Feb.1935 and scrapped the following year.[South Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor]

ZEPHYR (2) 1860
Length 210ft x beam 28ft, iron hull, one funnel, three masts, single screw, built at Waterford in 1860 for the Waterford Steamship Co which ran services from Waterford to Bristol and Liverpool. She foundered in the Bristol Channel in Sept.1889. Information from "Irish Passenger Steamship Services, vol.2" by D.B.McNeill. ISBN 0-7153-5248-2

14,588 gross tons, length 550ft x beam 67.3ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw, speed 15 knots. Accommodation for 200-cabin, 350-tourist 3rd cabin and 600-3rd class passengers. Built by Bremer Vulkan, Vegesack, she was launched for North German Lloyd on 9th Jun.1914 as the ZEPPELIN. Surrendered to Britain in 1919, she sailed for the Orient Line as the ORMUZ and was repurchased by NGL in 1927 and renamed DRESDEN. On 5th Aug.1927 she started her first voyage from Bremen to Southampton, Cherbourg and New York and commenced her last voyage on this service on 7th Sep.1933 when she sailed from Bremen for Cherbourg, Galway and New York. Subsequently used for cruising, she stranded near Haugesund, Norway on 20th Jun.1934 and the following day, heeled over and sank with the loss of four lives. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.572]


8,066 gross tons, length 143.15m x beam 16.95m, one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 14½ knots, accommodation for 104-1st, 97-2nd and 1,700-3rd class passengers.
Built 1902 by F. Schichau, Danzig for North German Lloyd, Bremen, she made a single round voyage to New York in Jan.1903 ans then transferred to Australia and Far East routes. In 1907 she resumed North Atlantic services until May 1914 when she sailed from Breman for Australia. In Aug.1914 she accompanied the German cruiser SMS KONIGSBERG in the Indian Ocean and on 5th Sep.1914 was laid up in Mozambique. Feb.1916 seized by Portuguese authorities and renamed TUNGUE. Managed by Transportes Maritimos do Estado, Lisbon. 1917 chartered to Britain and on 27th Nov.1917 was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine UB.31 while 120 miles North from Port Said on voyage Karachi to Milos. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P.Bonsor, vol.2,p.566]

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Investigation of cellular stress response related heat shock protein hsp70/Hsp70 and multixenobiotic transporter abcb1 in Siberian freshwater amphipods upon cadmium exposure

Induction of stress response genes hsp70 and abcb1 and Hsp70 protein by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was explored in amphipod species with different stress adaptation strategies from the Lake Baikal area. Based on lethal concentrations (LC) the sensitivities to CdCl2 were ranked (24 hr LC50 – mg/L CdCl2): Gammarus lacustris (1.7) < Eulimnogammarus cyaneus (2.9) < E. verrucosus (8.3) < E. vittatus (18.2). Conjugated dienes indicating lipid peroxidation were significantly increased by 5 mg/L CdCl2 (24 hr exposure) only in G. lacustris and E. cyaneus. Upon treatment with 0.54 – 5.8 mg/L CdCl2 hsp70 transcript levels were more increased in the toxicologically more sensitive species. Relating the exposure concentrations to LCx values revealed that across the species the increases of hsp70 transcript levels were comparatively low (up to 2.6-fold) up to LC50 at higher LCx values hsp70 induction was more pronounced (up to a 9.1-fold by 5 mg/L CdCl2 (≙LC70) in E. cyaneus). In contrast, abcb1 inductions did not correspond with CdCl2 LCx values across species abcb1 induction was highest (4.7-fold) in E. verrucosus by 5.0 mg/L CdCl2 (≙LC45, 24 hr exposure). Induction of stress gene responses by lethal CdCl2 concentrations indicates that in the amphipods they are rather insensitive.

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