Seer AM-112 - History

Seer AM-112 - History


(AM-112: dp. 890; 1. 221'2"; b. 32', dr. 11', s. 18 k.cpl. 105; a. 1 3", 2 40mm., 6 20mm., 2 dct., 4 dcp.,1 dcp. (hh.); cl. Auk)

Seer (AM-112) was laid down on 28 November 1941 by the American Shipbuilding Co., Lorain, Ohio; launched on 23 May 1942, sponsored by Mrs. J.P. Conley, and commissioned on 21 October 1942, Comdr. A.F. Block, USNR, in command.

Following commissioning, Seer proceeded from the Great Lakes to Chesapeake Bay for shakedown; then commenced minesweeping, antisubmarine patrol, and coastal escort work in the 5th Naval District. In April 1943, her division, Mine Division (MinDiv) 16, joined Task Force 68 at Tompkinsville, N.Y., whence, on the 5th, she got underway to escort a convoy to North Africa.

By the end of the month, the convoy had reached Gibraltar. During May and June as the forces scheduled to participate in Operation "Husky," the invasion of Sicily, gathered in Algerian and Tunisian harbors-Seer, now a unit of the 8th Amphibious Force's Escort-Sweeper group, escorted ships to Bizerte Oran, Nemours and Sousse, and patrolled off these ports. On 6 JuIy, she joined the "Joss" attack force; and, on the 9th, she departed for Sicily. The next morning, she arrived off Licata; and, as the 3d Infantry Division went ashore, she patrolled on a line four miles off Red beach. On the 11th, she was en route back to Bizerte to join another landing craft convoy and Escort it to southern Sicily.

By the end of the month, she had brought up another convoy, and Palermo had fallen. In August, she began escorting ships to that port. As the ships offloaded, she added her armament to that protecting the harbor and covering the push to Messina. By mid-month she had completed a second Bizerte-Palermo run, and, on the 17th, as Messina fell, she was caught in an air raid and took a small shell or small fragmentation bomb near the after 3-inch gun. Eight of her crew were injured, but, by the 19th, she was back at Palermo, whence she proceeded to Licata, Bizerte, and then to Mers-elKebir to prepare for the invasion of the Italian mainland at Salerno.

A unit of Task Force 81, she entered Salerno Bay on 8 September and commenced sweeping the transport area. Through the 11th, she continued sweeping despite interruptions during dive bombing attacks, then, until the 16th, she performed patrol duties.

For the next 10 days, she alternated Sicily-to-Salerno convoy duty with patrol work; and, on the 26th, she cleared the area to return to North Africa. Repairs alongside Delta followed; and, in mid-October, she resumed escort work with runs to Naples.

Seer continued to escort merchant ship and amphibious convoys to Italy into the summer of 1944 when she joined the forces assigned to Operation "Dragoon," the landings in southern France. Departing Naples on 12 August, she moved toward the French coast; and, during the pre-dawn hours of the 15th, commenced sweeping the boat lanes leading to Red beach on the Baie de Cavalaire. Further sweeping operations in the assault area and off Toulon and Marseille followed; and, for almost a month, she escaped damage from German mines and coastal guns. On 10 September, however, she struck a moored contact mine in the Rade d'Hyeres Three were killed, 20 injured. Hull and engine damage was severe.

Emergency repairs were performed at Toulon by the Royal Navy repair ship LSE-2; and, on 20 September,

she was taken in tow by Arikara for Palermo. Further temporary repairs were completed there on 9 November, when she started back to the United States.

Sailing via Bizerte and Oran, Seer arrived at Yorktown, Va., on 11 December and began repairs at the Norfolk Navy Yard on the 14th. By mid-March 1945, the work was completed, and the minesweeper conducted a series of tests off the Virginia coast for the Naval Ordnance Laboratory. During April, she operated off southern Florida. In early May, she transited the Panama Canal en route to Pearl Harbor where she rejoined her division, now assigned to the Pacific Fleet.

Flagship of the division, Seer remained in Hawaiian waters until after the end of the war. On 17 August, she headed west to participate in postwar minesweeping operations off Japan, Formosa, and the China coast. On 15 January 1946, she departed Sasebo for the United States and inactivation. She arrived at San Pedro on 14 February, remained on the west coast into November: then got underway for Orange Tex. where she was decommissioned on 26 April 194i an] berthed with the Atlantic Reserve Fleet.

After the outbreak of the Korean War, Seer was ordered reactivated. Recommissioned on 8 November 1950, she joined MinDiv 8 and for the remainder of the Korean Conflict performed training and schoolship duties out of Charleston, S.C., conducting periodic tours at Mayport and Panama City, Fla. In January 1954, she returned to the Mediterranean for a fourmonth tour with the 6th Fleet. At the end of May, she returned to Charleston to resume operations from that port and from Panama City. On 6 January 1955, however, she departed Charleston to return to the inactive fleet. On 11 March 1955, she was decommissioned and berthed at Green Cove Springs Fla., where she remained until transferred to the Royal Norwegian Navy on 15 December 1962. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 1 March 1963.

Seer earned six battle stars during World War II.

Air Conditioning & Heat Pump SEER Ratings History of the DOE Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Efficiency Standard

This article defines and explains the SEER energy efficiency rating found on air conditioners, heat pumps, and other mechanical systems. SEER stands for "Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio.

This is a measure of the energy efficiency of the air conditioning system. SEER ratings permit consumers to compare operating costs of various cooling systems and products.

We also provide an ARTICLE INDEX for this topic, or you can try the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX as a quick way to find information you need.

New DOE Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Efficiency Standard to Take Effect January 1, 2006

Discussed here: definition of SEER & history of & reasoning behind the development of SEER ratings. New DOE standard and history of air conditioning system ratings and refrigerants. Notes on the1987 Ban on ozone depleting gases.

SEER = [Total Cooling Output Over the Cooling Season] / [Total Electrical Energy Input Over the Cooling Season]

Older air conditioning systems are likely to have a lower SEER (perhaps 5 or 6) than a newer more efficient system (perhaps SEER=10). But beyond comparing SEER ratings, a look at the building insulation, air leakage, and the layout, insulation, and adequacy of the air conditioning duct system are likely to have a very large, usually determining effect, on the operating cost of air conditioning systems in buildings.

Details about SEER and other important air conditioner system measurements, terms, and definitions can be read at SEER RATINGS & OTHER DEFINITIONS. Readers should also see APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY RATINGS.

US EPA: All heating and air conditioning equipment is supplied with a manufacture's rating of the energy efficiency. The current minimum standard for air conditioners and heat pumps is a 10 Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER).

This has been the standard for many years, and equipment with this rating represents the vast majority of residential air conditioning installed in the United States. Starting January 1st of 2006 the Department of Energy has ruled that any new equipment installed must meet a new minimum efficiency of 13 SEER.

According to DOE studies the change from a 10 SEER to 13 SEER represents a 30% increase in air conditioning or heat pump energy efficiency. This is good news for your electric bill!

However, to achieve this new standard requires changes to the equipment. Generally speaking the new efficiency standard is going to be achieved in two ways. The first change is going to be in compressors. New technology compressors run quiet and provide excellent efficiency and durability.

The second way to increase the equipment's efficiency is to increase the size of the evaporator and condenser coils in the system. The new compressors and larger coils will mean an increase in the cost of the equipment.

Another factor in the cost of installation is size of the line set in the equipment. In many cases involving a retrofit, the old size line set may be inadequate for the larger coils and refrigerant charge of new equipment. Finally, another factor involving the cost of the installation could be the thermostat. Many new systems come with diagnostic control boards.

A new digital thermostat can take advantage of the diagnostics and cut down on maintenance calls or diagnostic time. This means savings for the consumer and peace of mind to know their equipment is running properly.

As more manufactures change from production of 10 SEER equipment to 13 SEER equipment the consumer should see some savings in the price, but the overall cost of all heat and air equipment will rise beginning this year.

The price of metal continues to impact the cost of equipment and as stated in the paragraph above, the 13 SEER equipment is normally larger than the comparable 10 SEER equipment (i.e. more metal in manufacturing).

So, in conclusion there is going to be a trade off facing builders, homeowners and heat and air contractors in the near future.

The technology to save 30% on energy consumption will be the standard as mandated by the Department of Energy. But, to achieve that energy savings will impact the up front cost of installation. If you have any questions on the standard you can give us a call or type in "13 SEER" on the search section of the DOE's web site at

Its not just the equipment compatibility, and getting the best efficiency, but also the need to take into effect the changeover from R-22 refrigerant to R-410a. Right now [January 2007-Ed.] you have a choice. January of 2010 (just 3 years away), the manufacturers have been mandated to stop making all R-22 equipment, and reduce importing and production of R-22 refrigerant.

As far as the efficiency and refrigerant changes, check out the DOE and EPA web sites. What You Should Know about Refrigerants When Purchasing or Repairing a Residential A/C System or Heat Pump DISCLAIMER: EPA seeks to promote energy efficiency and the safe use of ozone- friendly substances, and does not endorse any particular company or its products.

Continue reading at AFUE DEFINITION, RATINGS or select a topic from the closely-related articles below, or see the complete ARTICLE INDEX.

SEER Energy Rating Articles

    • R-VALUE for Insulation

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    Technical Reviewers & References

    • Modern Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, A. D. Althouse, C.H. Turnquist, A. Bracciano, Goodheart-Willcox Co., 1982
    • Principles of Refrigeration, R. Warren Marsh, C. Thomas Olivo, Delmar Publishers, 1979
    • "Air Conditioning & Refrigeration I & II", BOCES Education, Warren Hilliard (instructor), Poughkeepsie, New York, May - July 1982, [classroom notes from air conditioning and refrigeration maintenance and repair course attended by the website author]
    • Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology, 5th Ed., William C. Whitman, William M. Johnson, John Tomczyk, Cengage Learning, 2005, ISBN 1401837654, 9781401837655 1324 pages
    • Air Conditioning SEER - New DOE Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Efficiency Standard
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    Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair

    • Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore. Also see our Book Reviews - InspectAPedia.
    • Complete List of Air Conditioning & Heat Pump Design, Inspection, Repair Books at the InspectAPedia Bookstore.
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    We empower the scientific community through the power of proteomics

    At Seer, we develop innovative solutions that act as a gateway to the proteome. Our goal is to empower the scientific community with tools to achieve exceptional scientific outcomes. We do this by removing the technological barriers that stand between breakthrough ideas and the information that can make them a reality.

    We’re committed to eliminating the obstacles that have kept the potential of proteomics from matching the pace of advancements we’ve seen in other fields, like genomics and transcriptomics. We believe that unbiased, deep, rapid, large-scale proteomics can, and must, become accessible to the broad scientific community so that we may significantly advance our understanding of biology, health, and disease.

    Remember, if we were just trying to make money off of you, we too would be pushing high SEER equipment. But is high SEER a good SEER rating for you and your money? Maybe not. Think about it&helliphigh SEER equipment is typically twice as expensive as the base model, and our profit mark-up is based off of equipment plus labor. But I&rsquom not really interested in getting more money, I&rsquom interested in making my customers happy&hellipso they use me next time too. Besides, I hate high-pressure, dishonest sales tactics&hellipwhich is why I drive a vehicle manufactured in 1998&hellipI deal with car salesmen as seldom as possible.

    So what is a good SEER rating, and is high SEER worth the money? To answer these questions, we should first discuss some of the common myths associated with high SEER units. Here are some of the common myths that you will encounter when shopping for your high SEER air conditioning units:

    USS Skill (AM 115)

    At 11.46 hours on 25 Sep 1943, USS Skill (AM 115) (LtCdr E.J. Kevern, USNR) was hit by one of three torpedoes from U-593 while on patrol station between Point Licosa and Isle of Capri in the Gulf of Salerno. The torpedo caused a explosion in the forward magazine, breaking the ship in two. The forepart capsized and the aft part caught fire, later exploded and sank at about 12.00 hours. Ten minutes later, the capsized bow also went down.

    USS Seer (AM 112) screened USS Speed (AM 116) while she rescued 32 men (all wounded, one of them died two days later), but no officer survived. An unsuccessful search for more survivors was conducted by USS Pilot (AM 104).

    Location of attack on USS Skill (AM 115).

    ship sunk.

    If you can help us with any additional information on this vessel then please contact us.

    Media links

    U-Boat Attack Logs
    Daniel Morgan and Bruce Taylor

    How is SEER Rating Calculated?

    According to the AHRI standard, SEER is calculated by first determining the total amount of heat removed from a home during a typical year’s cooling season. This number is expressed in Btu’s (British thermal units 1 ). The Btu’s are then divided by the total electrical energy the air conditioner or heat pump uses during that same cooling season. This is expressed in watt-hours (Wh). So, SEER = Btu / Wh.

    SEER is also calculated based on indoor and outdoor temperature. Naturally, the outdoor temperature during a typical cooling season is not constant. It varies based on weather and climate. The SEER equation makes an effort to account for this by mimicking a typical cooling season, using a range of possible outdoor temperatures, 65°F to 104°F to be exact. These temperatures are divided into 8 sets or “bins” of 5° increments. Each bin’s average temperature is assigned a fraction of the total annual cooling hours. The indoor temperature, on the other hand, is based on a set 80° with a 50% relative humidity. (This applies to the temperature of the return air, not the supply air.)

    If this explanation isn’t in-depth enough for you, feel free to hunker down for some further reading in the AHRI standards document.

    It should be noted that this is the way we calculate SEER in the USA. The Europeans have their own rating system, called ESEER (European Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio, to state the obvious).

    1 A British thermal unit (Btu) is essentially a unit of heat. 1 Btu is equivalent to the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.

    A Note About HSPF and EER

    We should also note two other HVAC energy efficiency acronyms you might come across – namely, HSPF and EER. While these are not addressed on our AC energy savings calculator, it’s important to know what they mean.

    In addition to a SEER rating, heat pumps also carry an HSPF rating, related to the efficiency of its heating capabilities. (In case you don’t know, the only difference between a heat pump and an air conditioner is that a heat pump is able to run in both directions. It simple terms, it can either cool your home by transferring warm air from the inside of your home to the outside, or it can heat your home by transferring warm air from the outside, inside.) Thus, HSPF stands for Heating Seasonal Performance Factor.

    Similar to SEER, HSPF is calculated by dividing the total Btu’s 1 of required to heat your home during a typical season by the total watt-hours of electricity the heat pump consumes during that same season.

    EER, standing for Energy Efficiency Ratio, is also similar to SEER and is calculated in a nearly identical manner (Btu/Wh). The main difference is that EER doesn’t take into account fluctuations in the average outdoor temperature during the cooling season. Instead, its basis is a constant outdoor temperature of 95° F. On the other hand, SEER calculations, as discussed above, are made based on outdoor temperatures ranging from 65°F to 104°F. Both SEER and EER equations use the same set indoor return air temperature.

    Seer Green Village History

    Further down this page you will find a written village history compiled by Rick Spurway which includes the early beginnings of Seer Green, life in the 19th century, and then the 20th century to the present.

    More recently the church is participating in a village history project called “Our Living Village”. This is a recording of a recent 30 minute talk, “A short history of Seer Green”

    The area at the junction of Orchard Road and Chalfont Road on the corner of Manor Farm Way by Rose Cottage was formerly know as the “Wide Place”. It was where many village folk gathered. Children played with their hoops and tops, and enjoyed skipping, marbles and leap-frog.

    For hundreds of years the men and boys of Seer Green were mainly employed in agriculture – which meant hard labouring in the fields. Boys spent time at the village sawpit watching trees being sawn up for the Seer Green chair factory near Pondstiles.

    Chair legs were produced on a lathe in a shed next to Eddystone in the Chalfont Road. These were sent to the Wycombe furniture factories.

    Many village women were occupied in lace-making, and their daughters frequently worked as servants for the more wealthy in the surrounding area. Mrs Boddy was a grand lady lace-maker who lived in a cottage that stood on the corner of Manor Farm Way.

    Potkiln Lane is named after one of the last kilns in the county to produce hand-made pottery. It was owned by Mr Saunders at the location of the present builders merchants.

    Moss Court was built on the site of a row of cottages with long gardens, which are possibly the subject of this poem written by Kathleen Hughes, a former resident of Seer Green…

    In Seer Green long ago,
    They built a humble little row
    Of workmen’s houses, simple, plain
    Facing the narrow country lane.
    Long gardens stretched behind, before,
    In them was grown a goodly store –
    Potatoes, onions, carrots, pease,
    Old-fashioned flowers mixed with these

    Seer Green originally contained a huge cherry orchard – which gives Orchard Road its name. People came from all over Buckinghamshire to see the cherry blossoms of Seer Green – which became known as Cherry Pie Village – on account of the pies baked by Mr Lofty in his shop on the corner of Orchard and Wynnswick Road. Most of the cherries were sent to Covent Garden Market. Baker Lofty baked his bread in an old-fashioned coal oven, and delivered to several local villages. People used to take him their joint on Sunday morning, and collect it after Chapel. Fifty years ago the area of the present village shops including part of New Long Grove was all part of the cherry orchard.

    19th Century

    A lot more detail of life in Seer Green was recorded on the 19th century. Over a hundred years ago Seer Green had three pubs.

    Apart from the Jolly Cricketers and The Three Horseshoes there was also The Yew Tree in Orchard Road (now Yew Tree Cottage) which closed in 1909. The tree itself stood at the side of the house and was “accidentally” knocked down during the construction of Raeside Close. At one time The Jolly Cricketers faced directly onto the village green, since Holy Trinity had not yet been built there. Its name almost certainly comes from the games of cricket that were originally played at the centre of the village.

    Seer Green water has not always arrived through the taps. In 1887 the Jubilee Well was built on the occasion of Queen Victoria’s Jubilee. The 140-foot public well was constructed at the “Wide Place” for the use of the entire village. Except on Sunday, when it was kept locked. The well became an important focal point for Seer Green. Many village houses had private wells – including the three pubs, Hall Place, and the Manor Farm. The first village post box was situated next to the Jubilee Well.

    Some of the first Christians to establish themselves in Seer Green were a group of Baptists who held their meetings in private homes. They called these gatherings “Cottage Meetings”. Then in 1843 they formed a Church which met in the present Parish Church Hall, which had been constructed in 1829 alongside “The Wide Place” to house a lace-making school. The founder members consisted of 10 people who had already been baptised and 10 from other churches. In 1857 the Baptists purchased the building for £100. A gallery was created for the musicians and the choir. At that time people sat down to sing, and stood up to pray.

    Frederick Saunders, the owner of the potkiln in Potkiln Lane, was very active in the Baptist Church. He founded “The Band of Hope” in 1888 for the young people of the church. This group sent gifts to Dr Barnardo’s and other homes for the elderly and the disabled. They also organised musical evenings, country rambles, and trips to the seaside.

    The Anglican church was constructed on a site at the centre of the triangular village green. It was a tight squeeze to fit it in. The church opened in 1846. Then the village school was built at a cost of £500, and took its first pupils in 1859. Miss Emma Downes of Truro became the first headmistress. The original school room is still in use today. An entry of 1896 in the school log informs us that “the children do not attend very well as they are engaged in carrying meals to the men who are gathering fruit.” Presumably these were Seer Green cherries!

    In 1893, at the Golden Jubilee of the founding of their Church, the Baptists decided to launch a fund for a new building. They needed to raise £800, which equates with around £40,000 today. It seemed an awesome task. The foundation stone was laid on 15th August 1899, and one of the stonelayers was Halford Mills – the father of Bertram Mills, a famous circus operator. On Easter Monday 1900, the new chapel opened. People came from throughout the region by horse or gig, and the serveice was conducted by the Revd John Wilson of Woolwich. With no electricity in the village, lighting was provided by paraffin oil lamps suspended from the ceiling. The old chapel building became the church Schoolroom.

    The first village Post Office was situated next door to the Baptist Chapel, and just sold stamps. Mail was posted through a slit in the front door and collected by a postman who walked from Beaconsfield and back. The Post office has moved several times since then, including 40 years in a general store on Church Road.

    The 20th Century to the Present

    Up to the early 1900s communications in Seer Green were almost non-existent. There was no telephone system and no public transport. If you needed to see a doctor, you would have to walk to Gold Hill, or ride in someone’s horsedrawn cart. This could be avoided by visiting a Seer Green woman, Ann Picton, who concocted her own ointments and pills. Journeys to Beaconsfield or Chalfont St Giles meant long walks for housewives who needed provisions and those with jobs outside the village. The census of 1911 reveals some longstanding village names such as Worley, Payne, Child, Watson, Boddy, Goodall, Harding and of course the local bakers, Lofty.

    The railway only came to Seer Green in 1917. It was constructed by navvies who had previously built the national canal system. Until that time villagers used Chalfont & Latimer Station, or Wooburn Station, which was located on the old railway line built in 1854 between High Wycombe and Maidenhead. This linked with mainline trains to London. The new railway cut right through the estate and golf course of Colonel William du Pre, who lived in Wilton House (now contained in the Ministry of Defence Wilton Park.) Luckily for us today, Colonel du Pre arranged for a Railway Halt to be constructed at Seer Green together with a new golf clubhouse. The Halt was originally designed to serve the Golf Club, not Seer Green villagers. At first there were two trains a day. Then, Jordans was only just being constructed, along with many other new communities which began to spring up along the newly opened railway line to London.

    For a map of the village (OS 6 inch Revision date 1942 to 1952) click here and zoom in for detail.

    Several houses in Seer Green have interesting histories.
    After WWI, Seer Green House (now demolished) in Longbottom was extended and became a finishing school for debutantes – including Princess Margarethe of Sweden.
    During WWII the house became a convalescent home for wounded soldiers.

    The poet Herbert Read built the thatched Broom House at the corner of Longbottom and Bottom Lane.

    He was living there in 1943 when he wrote his poem “A World Within A War”…

    Sixteen years ago I built this house
    By an oak on an acre of wild land
    Its walls white against the beechwood
    Its roof of Norfolk reeds and sedge.
    The mossy turf I levelled for a lawn
    But for the most part left the acre wild
    Knowing I could never live
    From its stony soil.
    My work within between three stacks of books.
    My window looks out on a long line of elms…

    Read was knighted for his services to the Arts, and he acknowledged that Broom House was the place “where, if anywhere, the honour was earned.”

    TS Eliot often came to visit Broom House, and his collection of poems “Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats” was dedicated to Miss Susanna Morley who lived in Seer Green. These cat poems became the basis of Andrew Lloyd Webber’s highly successful musical “Cats”.

    One of the biggest changes to the village came when the Old Manor Farm was demolished for a new estate. Many of the old field names were used to name the roads. Once again, the Baptists had another vision of enlargement, and took the opportunity to fund-raise for a new Church at the heart of the proposed housing estate.

    A deal was struck with the developer of the site, and the present-day Baptist Church was constructed – together with its distinctive glass spire. The original chapel building is still standing, and has been converted into a family home

    In 1974 a tin box was found in the chimney of an old house in Seer Green. Inside was the following recipe for Cherry Pie…

    “For pastrie, use flour saved from the cleanings, and lard from the fresh killed pig.
    Roll out verie thickly so as to contain the cherry juice, and give boddie to the turnover.
    Gather a hatful of black cherries by moonlight.
    Those high up are better in taste.
    Let them be ripe enough to contain the juice when gentlie prest.
    Put a double layer in the pastrie with flour atop, and seal with fresh drawn water from the well.
    Cook gently on a fire of faggots.
    Gather round, and when the pastrie is cool enough not to scorch the fingers, break off one end and drink the juice.
    Repeat… and yet again….then again.

    August 1944 – Ammunition Ship Hit by Torpedo off Southern France

    This image shows what is likely an American or German ammunition ship being hit by a torpedo off Southern France. This image was taken from the Coast Guard cutter ship USS Duane. Based on the dates when other pictures similar to this one were taken, the estimated date is probably around August 16, 1944. It is believed that Dale Rooks was the photographer of this image.


    SUN 10 SEP 1944
    TF 38 air strikes against Japanese shipping, facilities and airfields on Mindanao continue. During these operations, TF 38 planes sink Japanese merchant cargo ship No.7 Unyo Maru off Mindanao.

    Submarine Sunfish (SS-281) sinks Japanese merchant tanker Chihaya Maru east of Quelpart Island, 33䓯'N, 127䓥'E.

    Other Japanese casualties include army tanker Bukun Maru sunk by mine (laid by British submarine HMS Porpoise on 8 July 1944) in Strait of Malacca, 03䓶'N, 98䓪'E and merchant tanker No.2 Hoei Maru sunk by mine off Woosung, China.

    Command designated Naval Forces France (Vice Admiral Alan G. Kirk) is established with headquarters at Paris, France.

    U.S. motor torpedo boat PT-206 on right flank of southern France beachhead gives chase to German explosive boat unit consisting of a control boat and two drones one of the latter is destroyed.

    Minesweeper Seer (AM-112) is damaged by mine while sweeping Grande Passe to Rade d'Hyeres, 42䓻'N, 06䓔'E fleet tug Hopi (ATF-71) tows the damaged ship to Toulon for repairs.

    While patrolling between Noli and Genoa, Italy, PT-559 and British motor torpedo boats attack southbound convoy, sinking one F-lighter and an ammunition barge. Escorting German patrol craft break off action.


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    Epimenides, (flourished 6th century bce ?), Cretan seer, reputed author of religious and poetical writings, including a Theogony, Cretica, and other mystical works. Religious theories of an Orphic character were attributed to him as well. He conducted purificatory rites at Athens about 500 bce , according to Plato (about 600 according to Aristotle). Stories of his advanced age (157 or 299 years), his miraculous sleep of 57 years, his dealings with oracles, and his wanderings outside the body have led some scholars to regard him as a legendary figure of a shamanistic type. For his reputed claim—cited by St. Paul the Apostle (Titus 1:12)—that all Cretans are liars, Epimenides, a Cretan, is credited with invention of the paradox of the liar, in which a sentence says of itself that it is false, thus being true if it is false and false if it is true.

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